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Blockchain

According to a search warrant issued by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, Long Island Iced Tea, a company known for its cryptocurrency cryptocurrency market in 2017, has long been brilliantly referred to as blockchain, which is a sophisticated pump and injection. It is suspected that two people were wanted for securities fraud, including another company, Calvin Medical.

The FBI believes the company bought shares in the company before the rebranding was announced. The agency says it was sold shortly after the company’s apparent sharp shift in health.

Long Blockchain: A well-known trading program that is likely to be traded inside
It wasn’t just the most anticipated cynics who doubted Long Island Ace Tea’s decision to blockchain. The Farmingdale, New York company rolled out the final wave of mania for a technology-driven environment in December 2017, and a change in direction said its share price had fallen by almost 300%.

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Of course, Long Island Blockchain never tested its technology potential and its market value immediately dropped. The firm eventually fell out of the Nasdaq stock market.

More than a year later, the FBI found evidence that one person had received branding information, and two others had used it at almost guaranteed company value. Discriminatory media were discovered on iPhone when two people were arrested for securities fraud involving another company, Calvin Medical.

The order states that the informant, named CHS, provided evidence against these spouses in Long Blockchain and Calvin’s medical records. The first three phone calls are not intended to be a paper trail. As CHS said, Lindsay was called on December 20, 2017.

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Beach Hotels Daytona

Daytona Beach is one of the most interesting beaches in America. It is home to the famous tradition of spring break of party and live concerts attended by hordes of students. Sports enthusiasts come here to see racing cars and to visit the Daytona USA Racing Museum, which has wonderful racing tracks. And in the fall season, Biketoberfest attracts cyclists from all over the country to participate in the four-day annual holiday.
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In these peak seasons, it may be harder to find accommodation, as hotels and inns are fully booked. If you are planning to travel to this part of Florida, we recommend that you book in advance. But before you do that, check out the hotel guides and websites for the best hotel for your itinerary.
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Guide to Daytona Beach Hotels

Most hotels in Daytona Beach allow you to book rooms online. The most important information you must provide to the service provider is the arrival schedule. From there, I can easily check which hotels to take you next.
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If you book far enough in advance, you can choose from a variety of locations and accommodation. There are hotels right on the beach or at least a few minutes & # 39; Get away from the waves. Some are near shopping centers, restaurants, sports complexes and clubs. If you are a golfer, you can check hotels near the green.
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If the beach is just a side trip for you and you are in Florida to enjoy its amusement parks such as Disney World, Universal Studios, Kennedy Space Center and Greyhound Dog Race Track, then you are coming to a hotel closer to those areas.
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You will still have a good view of the Atlantic Ocean and the expansive beaches of Daytona Beach.
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But if there are beach activities in the center of your vacation itinerary, then check out one of the hotels right on the sandy beach. Choose a location where driving is forbidden, so you can enjoy a peaceful relaxation while soaking up the sun.

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Top ten things I learned about Camiguin and the beach resort industry

I never imagined living on the shore of a beautiful island (Camiguin, Philippines) while owning and managing a small resort. Only God knows how many mistakes I make, but below I know ten things.
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1. Natural inhabitants are wonderful people, as are many foreigners. But some of the white wanderers act as if they own the island, and their armpits are not hindered (most certainly they do). Some live here, but they don’t seem to have jobs. You have to be nice to be rich.
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2. When it comes to hotel reviews, the presentation goes beyond the substance and the friendliness stirs the perfection. It seems that experiences can be easily forgotten, while the perception of those experiences goes nowhere.
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3. The relaxed island attitude is excellent for the quality of life, but it is not so great for capital formation. Also, things last forever, which is why guys are better in Las Vegas or Dubai.
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4. The city of Mambajao will never be confused with Manhattan. (N.Y. or Kansas) Not self-aware. Its purpose is not to please the spectators; is to fulfill the goals of its citizens.
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5. Verbal reservations in the room are a little safer than “I love you” from an excited drink.
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6. There is a gap between my food tastes and those of the locals. And the markets seem more interested in the pleasure of the latter and are not so interested in the pleasure of the former. How can civilized people prefer fish rather than hamburgers and mangoes than chocolate cakes. Am I crazy here?
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7. Whenever a rooster crows (which is about every three seconds) I feel like I betrayed Jesus.
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8. Pale white skin is repulsive. In the states you don’t see it, but (like the Osaka garbage) you see it here. It already covers. And I’m included in that. I promise to never leave the house in anything other than a full suit.
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9. One of the most underrated things to do in Camiguin is coral diving near the White Island. The water is so clear and the colors of the fish are amazing. It’s like being in the middle of a National Geographic movie, except it’s even clearer and more colorful. I would have liked more, but I thought I noticed a sea snake.
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10. I hope I will never stop learning and know that I will never stop enjoying Camiguin and the resort business.
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The best weekend getaways – 6 accessible destinations, USA and international

If you have a long weekend and want to take advantage of that extra day of vacation, why not go on a trip for a few days? What’s the point of staying home when there are so many places waiting to be explored? These days, travel does not involve too much planning in advance.
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You can easily throw together a two or three day itinerary. There may be some last minute offers for you to take. Where should you go? Here are some of the best weekend getaways right now (domestic):

Tucson, Arizona

If you don’t mind the heat of the desert, Tucson is a beautiful and accessible place to visit. There are many things to do outdoors, such as visiting the Saguaro National Park and checking out the Historic District.
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Head to Arizona – The Sonoran Desert Museum to see native plants and animals in an amazing landscape. It is very easy to find a nice hotel in this city for less than $ 100 a night.

Kansas City, MO

Right in the middle of America, Kansas City is an affordable destination that offers plenty of fun for a weekend getaway.
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Many of the attractions such as the art museum are free to visit. If you’re a sports fan, go to Kauffman Stadium or Arrowhead Stadium to catch a game.

Austin, TX

One of the best weekend getaways in Texas is Austin. It’s really fun to visit if you love music. On Sixth Street you will find both famous bands and new bands performing their best songs.
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Go to the Austin Zoo if you want to see all kinds of creatures: scalp, fur and feathers. There are many hotels with free breakfast.
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Here is one of the best weekend getaways in international destinations:

Guadalajara, Mexico

This is a cheap destination if you are flying from a major US city. There is no shortage of affordable accommodation. It’s usually cheaper if you opt for a vacation package that includes airfare and a hotel room.
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There are many fun things to do, such as exploring cultural institutions, such as the Huichol Wixarica Museum in Zapopan, the Clemente Orozco Museum.

Brussels, Belgium

Airlines such as WOWAir offer accessible flights to European destinations. Brussels is especially an affordable getaway with over 500 hotels.
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It’s easy to find a four-star hotel for $ 100 or less per night. This beautiful, historic city is definitely worth a visit.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

While there are many destinations accessible in the Caribbean, the best weekend getaways right in Santo Domingo. Air transport, accommodation, food and activities are suitable for any budget.
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This city is a mix between the modern Latin flair and the charm of the old world. You will find an amazing mix of fortresses and historic palaces mixed with 21st century shopping and nightlife.
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Let travel sites be your top source for the best weekend getaways and travel discounts. Whether you already have a destination in mind or want to browse through all your current offers, there may be an online discount code you can use to save even more.

Henry Polic II (1945-2013)

Henry Polic II (February 20, 1945 – August 11, 2013) was an American screenwriter as well as voice actor, and was best known on Webster as Jerry Silver.

In the 1980s, Henry Polic II was frequently regarded as a popular guest player in numerous game shows. The most common guest slots have been on several Pyramid events, as he has repeatedly featured the $ 25,000 Pyramid and Dick Clark, as well as John Davidson's hosted versions of the $ 100,000 Pyramid for Producer Bob. Stewart. Henry Polic has also done countless other works, as well as hosting the 1986 Double Talk game show, the 1988 pilot resurrection Q, and tax-sharing announcements with Dean Goss and Johnny Gilbert on the 100,000 Pyramid. USD. The specialties of the policy included regional and foreign accents, baritone singing and ballroom dancing.

From the early 1990s until his death, Henry Polic was probably best known in Batman as the scarecrow's first accented British voice: the animated series. Initially he had a deep, angry tone, but eventually he raised his voice to fit the role. While working at Florida State University, Henry Polit visited the Theater's Production School at a Carol production, where in 1996 he played as Scrooge. In addition to Henry Polic's playing performance, he also hosted Double Talk from 1986 to 1987.

Veteran actor Henry Polic II has acted as Nottingham sheriff in the Mel Brooks series and also when Things Were Rotten, as well as Webster's Jerry Silver, died at age 68 after a long illness with cancer.

Henry Polic was a well-known game show player, frequenting the $ 25,000 Pyramid and his possible manifestation, the $ 100,000 Pyramid, of which the Police hosted Dick Dick. In addition, Henry has also been a host of the game show and has also run ABC's Double Talk since 1986. In addition to being a popular game show host, Henry Polic acted as Dracula briefly in NBC series from the '70s Monster Squad and has guest starred in numerous shows, including Mork & Mindy, Alice, Eight Is Enough, Sheena, Murder, She Wrote, and As Saved by the Bell. In addition to Batman's work on Police, he has given his voice in the Smurfs series and other different series, such as Dukes and midnight patrol, as well as the happy day band.

On Webster, Henry Polic acted as Jerry Silver, a confidant, as well as secretary to Katherine (Susan Clark), who had 54 episodes throughout the series and ran on 1983-1989 on ABC, as well as in the syndicate.

Born in 1945 in Pittsburgh, Henry Polic attended Florida State University and earned his master's degree in acting. After graduation, he was enrolled and stationed at Kansas Fort Riley, and later connected with Missouri's Tent Theater, and Miami's Player's Theater, to name but a few. In the early 1970s, Henry Polic moved to Los Angeles, where he made his television debut as Nottingham Sheriff in 1975 and also in the comedy When Things Were Rotten, which featured Richard Gautier as Robin Hood.

Henry Polic also had film credits that included, Joan Rivers from 1978, Beau Geste Last Remake from 1977, Oh 1980, Lord! Book II, then 2000 Bring It Home and Finally Everything You Need Since 2001. Henry Polic has appeared in over 70 local and regional productions, including the global premiere of the Broadway hit hit Sister Act, through who initiated the role of Bishop Howard. Other theatrical credits in which he played and Policeman were the 1776 production of Civic Light Long Beach, West's Never Gonna Dance Music Theater, Putting It Together, Is This Your Life and the world premiere of A Couple of Guys at the Movies. . Henry Polic's directorial credits include Hollywood's Fools for the Actors Cooperative, as well as Ventura Rubicon Theater; Jim Geoghan's World Premiere of Two Gentlemen of Corona; Nebraska world premiere production; both New York and Los Angeles Brine County wedding productions; and a record production of Dracula.

The cop was a host for the event and celebrity bidder, who helped raise over $ 2 million for charities throughout the year, such as the Cancer Care Foundation, the Adam Walsh Foundation, the Diabetes Association of America and Leukemia Foundation. Police taught an acting class for the film room at the Los Angeles Emerson College Center and also taught an acting course at the Academy of American Dramatic Arts. Henry Polic was also a member of The Act Actors since 1973 and a member of a Western council organization, which recognized him with the status of emeritus. In addition, a scholarship memorial fund was founded on behalf of Henry Polic in the state of Florida, which provides funding to help produce new annual works for Theater Schools.

Henry Polic II is a regular face among the audience in his various films, television and stage roles, and is also for his acclaimed plays as a theater director. Henry Polic was passionate about his work in the theater, and some of his acting credits included regular serial roles in Webster comedies as well as in classic TV series. In addition, he has had several guest starring roles, such as Sheena, She Spies, Cosby, News Radio and Profiler. In addition to acting credits, Henry Polic also has film credits, which include All you need, Beau Geste Last Remake, Traces of the Old, Bring Him Home, Oh God, Book II, Road and Rabbit are testing a Joan River comedy.

Below is a detailed list of Henry Polic's best-known works:

• CREDITS – Appearances on stage

  • Room Service, 1987
  • A Christmas Carol Scrooge, School of Theater, Florida State University, 1996
  • Politics also appeared in The Last Pad; Boys in the Band, Boysin the Band; a Broadway production; fantastic; The man from La Mancha; Pal Joey and 1776, Is your life? Civic Light operates Long Beach; The Tamarind Theater.

• CREDITS – Direction of stages

  • Bridal Country Wedding, 1996

• Movie appearances

  • Captain, Beau Geste Last Remake, 1977
  • Scavenger Hunt, empty cop, 1979
  • (Himself) Oh, Lord! Psychiatrist 5, Book II, 1980
  • Stephen Tarlow, Double Trouble, 1992
  • James / MacBeth, Scott's Play, 1999
  • Bring it home, 2000
  • Everything you need Mr. Etheridge, 2001
  • Valette, 2002
  • Button the King, Will I Lie to You ?, 2002

• Television appearances – Series

  • (TV debut) Nottingham Sheriff and When Things Were Rotten, 1975
  • Ordinary summer and fall show, 1976
  • Yo Yogi, 1991
  • The monster team, Count Dracula, 1976-1977
  • Jerry Silver, Webster, 1983-1987
  • Combustion, 2004
  • Morton and Hayes, 1991
  • Voice of, All-New Scooby as well as Scrappy-Doo Show, 1983, (animated).
  • Talk show presentation, Double Talk / Celebrity Double Talk, 1986
  • Children's show for Tom and Jerry 1990
  • Assistant Teacher, $ 100,000 Pyramid, Syndicate, 1992
  • Potsworth and Company, 1990
  • Hollywood Chaos, 1989
  • Super password, 1994
  • Body language, 1984
  • Alice, 1977

• Short series

  • Mark Steiner, Scruples, 1981

• Movies

  • I Yabba-Dabba Do, voice, 1993 (animation)
  • Doc Thompson, Animal Planet, the Old Drum trail, 2000

• Pilots

  • Heck's Angels, 1976
  • McNamara & # 39; s Band, Schnell, 1977

• Special

  • Survival of the 70's and maybe Bump into Happiness, 1978
  • Voices of the Wolf Leader and Tracker, Christmas Special of The Smurfs (animated), 1986
  • Bob Hope's Yellow Ribbon Party, 1991

•Episodic

  • Man, the bionic woman, 1976
  • Failure, Walter, 1977
  • The Jewel Thief / I Want To Get Married, Marty, 1978
  • The War between Bradford, Eight Is Enough, 1978
  • Dr. Phillips, 1979
  • Hooray for Bulgaria, 1979
  • Donald, The Incredible Hulk, 1980
  • Pierre, "Appellant / convenient marriage / no girls / witness to criminal prosecution", Love Boat, 1980
  • Redding Jay, "The Maltese Air Bag", Eight Is Enough, 1980
  • "Guinness on Tap", 1981
  • Bors, "The perfect volcano / husband", 1981
  • Frederick, "Very rare among wines", 1982
  • Francois, Burglars of Beauty, Lacey and Cagney, 1982
  • Randy Turner, "We Knew When to Own Them, 1983
  • My Way, Ivo, E.R, 1984
  • Gun Shy, 1983
  • E.R, Dr. Raja, 1984
  • Stern Roy, Hotel, Illusions, 1985
  • Guest, $ 100,000 Pyramid, 1985
  • According to Alan, "Home fires keep burning," Omor, she wrote, 1986
  • Bishop Arthur, "Old Lady", Omor, she wrote, 1989
  • "Something new, something old", brothers, union, 1989
  • The voice of the mayor of the city, "For Who the Bells Klang: 2" (animation), Tale Spin syndicated, 1990
  • Vincent Val, "Hair Today and Gone Tomorrow", were out of space, 1991
  • Daffy Dicks, Maitre & Hayes & Morton, 1991
  • Dark Room, 1982
  • The Voice of the Scared / Jonathan Crane, Fear Nothing, Batman (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman and Robin, as well as Batman: Animation of the Series), 1992
  • The Voice of the Scared / Jonathan Crane, Fear of Victory, Batman (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman and Robin, as well as Batman: Animation of the series), 1992
  • The Voice of the Scared / Jonathan Crane, Dreams in the Darkness, Batman (also known as the Adventures of Batman and Robin, as well as Batman: the animation of the series), 1992
  • Mr. Bainbridge Saved by the Bell, "Snow White and the Seven Dams", 1992
  • The Voice of the Scared / Jonathan Crane, Harley's Vacation, Batman (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman and Robin, and Batman: The Animation of the Series), 1994
  • Detective School, 1979
  • The voice of Scarecrow / Jonathan Crane, Lock-Up, Batman (animation; also called The Adventures of Batman & Robin, as well as Batman: the animation of the series), 1994
  • Verne Jules, Eighty Arms Around the World, Mighty Max, 1994
  • Richard, The Crisis of Three Carats, Profiler, 1999
  • Island Fantasy, 1978 – 1981
  • Sheena, Wild Thing, Syndicate, 2000
  • Rabbit Test, 1978
  • Superman, 1988
  • The strange new couple, 1982
  • Osborne Michael, She Spies, Gone Bad, Syndicate, 2003
  • Henry Polic presented as the first man the voice; Golden Palace, Don Coyote and Sancho Panda adventures (animation), syndicate; Yo! Voice Yogi; (animation); and as the voice of SuperTed (animation).

• Television

  • Additional Voices, Scooby as well as Scrappy-Doo (animated), ABC, 1979
  • Additional Voices, The Smurfs (animation; also known as Smurf's Adventures), 1981

Conclusion

In short, Henry Polic II, a television personality of almost forty, died at the age of 68. The actor started his career in 1975 with ABC, playing as Nottingham Sheriff. He then went on to play briefly in the 1970s series Dracula, Monster Squad, and later played a dozen shows, such as Mork and Mindy, Saved by the Bell, Alice, Eight Is Enough, Sheena. and Murder, She wrote.

Acting in various supporting roles, Henry Polic remained a popular face of television for American generations, from the 1970s until his death. In addition, he continued to achieve mainstream status for both children and adults, during his time, being the main voice of Dr. Jonathan Crane / Scarecrow on Batman: the animated series.

When it came to opinions, people's opinions were very similar to Henry Polic II's, he was exceptional and generally considered a good actor as a whole. In addition to all these remarkable beliefs, Henry Polic was a well-known game show competitor, defending the $ 25,000 Pyramid and future editions. Throughout his career, Henry Polic has never confined himself to a particular or specific public profile and, although his roles have generally been resigned to supporting roles, he has rarely appeared in many types of similar categories on television and movies.

Unfortunately, the actor's life, as well as his career, were short lived due to the illness. Cancer stopped Henry Polic. Henry Polic died at the age of 68 in Sherman Oaks, California, and is survived by his sister, a nephew and two nieces.

What is a justice mattress?

The bedroom is a place where you spend a lot of time and time too quality. You are not only using it for sleep, but also for relaxation. To be totally relaxed you have to have a good mattress.

The mattress for justice is a product of the Justice Furniture. They produce mattresses using state-of-the-art equipment. Their mattresses provide good comfort and also provide a guarantee for their products. They have top latex mattresses, Visco-Elastic foam mattresses and more. They also produce good quality pillows and beds.

You can contact the dealers and see what their range of mattresses look like. I also sell hotel mattresses, beds, etc. They called their mattresses AVALON, ODYSSEY, INFINITY, ATLANTIS: ESCALADE: LUXOR, CHATEAU, ATLANTIS etc., and each mattress has a lot of features. and prices vary too. The best-selling mattress among them is ODYSSEY, which has excellent quality and comfort.

All mattresses have a guarantee for their products. Justice produces five beds; namely, MAXIMA, MIRABELLA, GENESIS, SATURN, JUST-O-PEDIC and RAW MATERIAL.

There are many competitors on the mattress segment and it is advisable to take a look at the range of Justice mattresses and feel the quality and then buy.

Carmine "Lilo" Galante – the cigar

He was as vicious as the Mafia boss, Vito Genovese, as ambitious as Vito Genovese and was deeply involved in the heroin business, as was Vito Genovese. However, Carmine "The Cigar" Galante, would not die of natural causes, as Vito Genovese did (though in prison). Instead, Galante was killed in one of the most memorable mob blows of all time. After his body was filled with lead, he lay on his back in the small backyard of a Queens restaurant, his trademark cigar clenched between his teeth.

Camillo Galante was born on February 21, 1910, on Stanton 27, in the lower part of eastern Manhattan. Since both his parents, Vincenzo, a fisherman and his wife (little girl's name Vingenza Russo) were born in the village on the Castellammarese del Golfo coast of Sicily, Galante was a pure Sicilian / American first generation. Galante had two brothers and two sisters, and when he was at school, Galante gave his name as Camillo and insisted on being named Carmine instead. Over the years, it has been shortened to "Lilo", which was the name most of its associates called Galante.

Galante first got into trouble for petty theft from a shop counter when he was fourteen. However, since he was a minor at the time, a record of this arrest is not in his official police record.

At different times, Galante attended 79 and 120 public high schools, but dropped out of school for good at the age of fifteen. Galante entered and exited the reform school several times and was considered an "incorruptible offender".

From 1923 to 1926, Galante was ostensibly employed at the 270 West Broadway Lubin artificial flower company. However, this was an excuse to satisfy the law that Galante was a profitable employee, when in fact he was engaged in a very profitable criminal career.

In December 1925, Galante was arrested for assault. However, the money changed hands between Galante's people and the crooked cops, and consequently Galante was released without serving any more prison. In December 1926 Galante was arrested again, but this time he was found guilty of second degree assault and robbery and sentenced to two to five years in prison. Galante was released from prison in 1930 and, in order to satisfy his parole officer, obtained another dumb "service" at the fish company O & # 39; Brien on 105 South Street, near the market. Fulton fish.

However, it was not Galante's nature to remain on the right side of the law. On March 15, 1930, five men entered the Martin Weinstein shoe factory at the corner of York and Washington streets in Brooklyn Heights. On the 6th floor of the building, Mr Weinstein was in the process of collecting his weekly salary together, under the protection of police officer Walter De Castillia from 84 units. The five men took the elevator to the 6th floor. While one man was standing guard at the elevator, the other four men burst into Mr. Weinstein's office. They ignored the $ 7,500 sitting on the table and opened fire on Officer De Castillia, a married father of a little girl, nine years in the making. Officer De Castillia was hit six times in the chest and died instantly.

The four men calmly headed for the elevator and joined their cohort, guarding the elevator operator Louis Sella. Stella led the five men to the ground floor. Later, he told police that the men exited the building, calmly walked to a parked car, got in the car and fled the scene. When police arrived a few minutes later from the station house just 2 blocks away, the killers were nowhere to be seen. Sella described the five men as "early to mid-twenties, with dark skin and dark hair." Sella said the men were all "very well dressed."

The police theory was that, since no money was taken, that this was a planned blow to Officer De Castillia. On August 30, 1930, Galante, along with Michael Consolo and Angelo Presinzano, were arrested and charged with the murder of Officer De Castillia. However, all four men were soon released due to lack of evidence.

On December 25, 1930, four suspicious men were sitting in a green sedan on Brooklyn's Briggs Boulevard. Police Detective Joseph Meenahan was just in the area. He saw the men in the sedan, drew his weapon and approached the sedan with caution. One of the men shouted to Meenahan, "Stop right there in copper, or we'll burn you."

Before Meenahan could react, the shooting started from the green sedan. Meenahan was shot in the leg, and a six-year-old girl who was walking nearby with her mother was seriously injured. The driver of the sedan had problems starting the car, so the four men jumped out of the sedan and tried to escape on foot. Three of the men managed to escape the area by jumping on a passing truck, but the fourth slipped as he tried to get on the truck and was caught by the injured Meenahan. That man was Carmine Galante.

When Meenahan brought Galante to the station house, a group of detectives, upset that one of them had been injured, started offering Galante "police station control." Despite his achievement, Galante refused to give up the identities of the escaped men. Later, he was tried and convicted as one of four men who had stolen the Lieberman Brewery in Brooklyn. On January 8, 1931, Galante was removed to the Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York. He was later transferred to the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York, where he remained until release on May 1, 1939.

While Galante was in prison, he was given an IQ test, which revealed that he had a mere IQ of 90, which, although Galante was well into his twenties, equates to a mental age of 14. years. It was also noted that Galante was diagnosed as having a "neuropathic psychopathic personality". A physical evaluation showed that he had a head injury caused in a car accident when Galante was 10 years old, a fractured ankle when he was eleven years old and that Galante showed early signs of gonorrhea, probably suffering from one of the many brothels. controlled by the Mafia.

In 1939, after being released from prison, Galante was again given a stifling job at his former job at the Lubin Artificial Flower Company. In February 1941, Galante became a member of Longshoreman's Union Local 856, where he worked ostensibly as a "stevedore." However, Galante is probably rarely presented for work; one of the benefits of being a member of the Mafia.

There is no exact date record, but Galante was inducted as a member of the Bonanno crime family in the early 1940s. Despite his boss being Joe Bonanno, at the time when America's youngest mafia boss Galante played many hits for Vito Genovese, all in the 1930s and 1940s.

While Genovese was in self-imposed exile in Italy (he was wanted on a murder charge and flew on the co-op before he could be arrested), Genovese became a fast friend with Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Mussolini had a stone in his American shoe, named Carlo Tresa. The stress caused Mussolini a great deal of agitation, writing incessantly anti-fascist feelings in his radical Italian-language newspaper, Il Martello, which was sold to Italian communities in America.

Genovese sent Frank Garofalo's word to America, emphasizing to Joseph Bonanno, that Tresa had to leave. Garofalo gave Tresa a contract with Galante, who shadowed Tresa for a few days to determine the best time and place to shake it.

On January 11, 1943, Tresa was walking on Fifth Avenue near 13th Street, when a black Ford sedan pulled along. The Ford stopped and Galante jumped out, with the hot gun in his hand. Galante hit Tresa several times in the back and head, killing the instant newspaper editor. Amazingly, Galante was seen by his parole officer running away from the scene, but due to the gasoline war ration, the parole officer was unable to track down the black Ford containing the Galante and the smoking gun. She was never arrested for killing Tresa.

In 1953, Bonanno sent Galante to Montreal, Canada to take over the Bonanno family's interests north of the boarding school. Aside from the highly profitable Canadian gambling missiles, Bonannos has been hard at importing heroin, from France into Canada and then into America – the infamous French connection. Galante oversaw the Canadian drug operation for three years. In 1956, the Canadian police surprised Galante's involvement. Not having enough evidence to arrest Galante, they instead deported Galante back to America, classifying Galante as "an unwanted alien."

In 1957, Genovese called for a grand summit of all the top gangsters in America to take place in the state residence of Appalachian Joseph Barbara, a captain in Stefano Magaddino's Buffalo crime family. In preparation for this meeting, on October 19, 1956, several crime scenes in New York were called to Barbara's house to go over the guidelines of the proposed hearing; the main purpose was to anoint Genovese as Capo di Tutti Capi "or" the chief of all chiefs ".

After the session ended, on his way back to New York, Galante was hindered near Birmingham, New York. Because his driver's license had been suspended, Galante called the police. He was immediately arrested and sentenced to 30 days in prison. However, the Mafia's tentacles also reached the New York State Police Department. After several New York lawyers made the right phone calls to establish New York, Galante was released within 48 hours. However, a state police officer named Sergeant Edgar Roswell noted that Galante confessed to police that he had stayed the night before at the Arlington Hotel as the host of a local businessman named Joseph Barbara. This prompted Roswell to pay special attention to Barbara's residence in Apalachin, New York.

Less than a month later, on November 17, 1957, at the insistence of Don Vito Genovese, mafia members from all over America headed to Barbara's residence. These men included Sam Giancana of Chicago, Santo Trafficante of Florida, John Scalish of Cleveland and Joe Profaci and Tommy Lucchese of New York. Galante's boss, Joe Bonanno, decided not to attend and sent him instead of Galante.

Sergeant Roswell noted that the day before, the nearby Arlington Hotel had been reserved for moors with suspicious-looking locals. Roswell asked the right questions and could confirm that the man who made the reservations for these men was Joseph Barbara himself. Roswell drove to resident Barbara and saw dozens of luxury cars parked outside, some with plates outside the city.

Roswell called for a reserve and within minutes, dozens of state troops arrived with firearms. Troops attacked Barbara's residence and the chaos ensued. Men wearing expensive suits, hats and shoes. Some were immediately arrested; some got into their cars and drove away before the police put them into service. Others jumped on the windows and climbed through the thorny forests. One of those men was Carmine Galante, who hid in a corn field until police left Barbara's residence. Then he returned to Barbara's house and arranged his passage safely back to New York.

The next day, when news of the attack on Barbara's house hit US newspapers, throwing the lid on the misconception that the Mafia was a myth, Galante went into the wind or, in terms of the mafia, "fired a lamski." On January 8, 1958, the New York Herald Tribune wrote that Galante fled to Italy to connect with ex-pal Salvatore "Lucky" Luciano, who was in exile in Italy, after serving nine years in American prison for prostitution. slammed. load. Another report said it was not Luciano Galante, but rather Joe "Adonis" Doto, another mob boss in exile in Italy. On January 9, the American New York Journal stated that Galante was not in Italy at all, but in Havana, Cuba, with Meyer Lansky, a longtime member of the National Crime Commission, who had many interests in casinos in Cuba.

In April 1958, it was clear that Galante was now back in the United States and living somewhere in the New York area. Local law began to work, and in July, Galante was arrested by the Federal Narcotics Bureau while driving near Holmdale, New Jersey. He was accused of participating in a major heroin deal, with which one of many Galantes had been involved. Also arrested were Vito Genovese, John Ormento, Joe Di Palermo and Vincent Gigante. Galante, again using his New York law firms, was released on $ 100,000 bail. Galante's lawyers have been able to delay all legal proceedings for almost two years. It was not until May 17, 1960, that Galante was formally charged, and again released on bail.

On January 20, 1961, Galante's trial finally began, and the judge, Thomas F. Murphy, revoked Galante's bail, ordering Galante to be brought to the weakest. However, Galante's luck was withheld when, on May 15, he was declared a mistrial. It seemed that the head of the jury, a poor christian named Harry Appel, a 68-year-old clothing manufacturer, had the misfortune to fall down a flight of stairs to a building on Manhattan's 15th Street. After doctors arrived and Appel was taken to a nearby hospital, it was established that Appel suffered a broken back. No one saw Appel fall and neither did the injured and frightened Appeal say that someone had pushed him. However, although they had no clear evidence, law enforcement officials believed Appel was pushed by a cohort of Galantes, with the warning not to say anything to anyone and that they would allow Appel and his family members to live.

Galante, now feeling alive and distressed, was released from prison, guaranteed with a $ 135,000 bond.

Unfortunately, but all good things must come to an end.

In April 1962, Galante's second trial began.

At trial, in the courtroom there was a bit of a stir, when one of Galante's co-defendants, a nasty creature named Tony Mirra (who is said to have killed 30-40 people) became so ruthless, He raised a chair and threw it at the prosecutor. Fortunately for the prosecutor, the chair missed him and landed in the jury box, forcing jurors scared to scatter in all directions. The order was reinstated in court and the trial continued, which was bad news for both Galante and Mirra. Both men were found guilty, and on July 10, 1962, Galante was sentenced to thirty years in prison. Also, Mirra was sent to prison for a very long time. It is unclear whether additional time was given for Mirra's sentence for the chair toss incident.

Galante was first sent to Alcatraz Prison, which is located on an island fortress in the Gulf of San Francisco. He was then transferred to Lewisburg Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, before completing his final years in prison in the United States Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia. Galante was finally released from prison on January 24, 1974, full of fire and slime and ready to return to business. However, Galante had to be sentenced until 1981, so he had to be careful not to keep a high profile. Unfortunately, being in the background was not in Galante's makeup.

While in prison, Galante announced that when he was released from prison, he would take control of the New York mafia. The accepted head of the five mafia families in New York at that time was Carlo Gambino, the head of the Gambino crime family. Gambino was restless and generally quiet and reserved; well respected for his business wisdom and ability to maintain peace between his own family and the other mafia families. However, Galante had to use Gambino, or his method of doing business.

Until Galante's release, his boss Joe Bonanno had been forced to "retire" and lived in Tuscon, Arizona. Bonanno's new boss was Rusty Rastelli. But, as Rastelli was at that time weaker, Galante took over as Bonannos' chief of the streets. Still, Rastelli was considered Bonannos's boss and he was never too happy about how Galante was packing his stuff on the streets of New York.

Galante took the unusual step, and did not appreciate the other members of the Bonanno crime family, to surround himself with Sicilian-born Mafioso, such as Cezar Bonventre, Salvatore Catalano and Baldo Amato. American men were derisively referred to as "zippers" because of the rapid way in which they passed through the Italian language. These zippers were heavily involved in the drug trade and in direct opposition to those from the Genoese Crime Family, which was run by Funzi Tieri, as naughty and vicious as Galante.

Galante had a minor misdemeanor, when in 1978, he was arrested by the federals for "associating with known criminals", which was a violation of his right to speak. While Galante was in prison, he began ordering his men to kill gangsters in the Genoese and Gambino crime families who were dealing with Galante's international drug operations. With Carlo Gambino now dead (due to natural causes), Galante thought he had the muscle to push the other heads of the crime family. From prison he sent the message to the other chiefs: "Who among you will rise up against me?"

On March 1, 1979, Galante was released from prison and walked because he truly believed that the other crime bosses were afraid of him. Like Vito Genovese before him, Galante thought of himself as "the chief of all the chiefs" and it was only a matter of time before the other chiefs committed themselves to Galante and handed him the title.

However, Galante underestimated the power and will of the other Mafioso bosses in New York. While Galante was walking the streets of New York, the other chiefs held a meeting in Boca Raton, Florida, deciding Galante's fate. The event was attended by Funzi Tieri, Jerry Catena, Paul Castellano and the head of Florida Santo Trafficante. These powerful people unanimously voted, if peace was on the streets of New York, Galante was supposed to go. Rastelli, who was still in prison, was consulted and even old Joe Bonanno, who lived in Arizona, was asked if he had any reservations at his former neighbor being hit. Both Rastelli and Bonanno signed Galante's murder contract, and Galante's days were numbered.

July 12, 1979 was a hot and sticky summer day, while 69-year-old Lincoln Carmine Galante climbed 205 Knickerbocker Avenue in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn. For more than 50 years, Knickerbocker Boulevard had been the lawn of the Bonanno crime family, and over the years numerous car situations took place in one of the many shops in the block.

Carmine Galante left Lincoln, then said goodbye to the driver: his nephew James Galante. Carmine Galante wore a white short-sleeved shirt and, as was his custom, sucked a huge Churchill cigar. Galante entered the small restaurant and was greeted by Joe Turano, owner of Joe's and Mary's Restaurant. Galante had made this visit to meet Turano, and Leonard "Nardo" Coppola, a close relative of Galante's, about an indefinite car dealership.

Around 1:30 pm, Cappola walked in the restaurant, accompanied by the zippers Baldo Amato and Cesare Bonventre, who were cousins, and from the same village with Galante's parents: Castellammarese del Golfo. By this time, Galante and Turano had already finished their meal, so while the three newcomers sat in and had their meal, Galante and Turano slipped out into the courtyard and sat under a yellow umbrella and turquoise. After Cappola, Bonventre and Amato finished the meal, they joined the other two men outside. Galante and Turano smoked cigars and drank espresso with Anisette (only tourists and non-Italians drink Sambuca).

Galante was behind his back in a small garden, while Amato was on the left and Bonventre was on the right. Turano and Cappola sat on the opposite side of the table, with their backs to the door leading to the restaurant.

Around 2:40 pm, a blue four-door Mercury Montego, parked double in front of Joe and Mary's restaurant. The car had been stolen about a month before. The driver, wearing a red striped ski mask covering his face, got out of the car and stood guard, holding an M30 rifle in his hands. Three other men, also wearing ski masks, jumped out of the car and entered the restaurant. They passed a few surprised boys who were still eating lunch and rushed to the courtyard area.

When they entered the yard, a masked man said to the other, "Take it, Sal!"

The gunman named "Sal" began firing several times with a two-barreled rifle at Galante, propelling Galante, as he rose from his seat, back. Galante was hit with 30 pellets, one with his left eye removed. Galante was probably dead before he hit the ground, his cigar still clenched.

When Galante was shot, Joe Turano shouted, "What are you doing?"

The same gunman turned to Turano and, with the rifle pressed on Turano's chest, flung Turano into eternity.

Cappola jumped off the table and Amato, or Bonventre (it's not clear who made the film) shot Cappola in front, then five times in the chest. Cappola landed face down, and the gunman burst from behind Coppola's head.

The three masked men then rushed from the restaurant and into the waiting car. According to witnesses outside the restaurant, the car went up Knickerbocker Avenue to Flushing Avenue, then disappeared around the corner. Bonventre and Amato, who were both wearing leather jackets despite the stifling heat, soon followed the three weapons out of the restaurant. They walked calmly down the block, into a blue Lincoln and left, as if caring for the world.

Galante's body was placed in the Provencano-Lanza Funeral Home at 43 Second Avenue on the lower east side. The crowds that usually accompany such a mob mafia were particularly absent. Galante was buried July 17 at the Saint John Cemetery in Queens. Fed counting, only 59 people attended Galante's grave and burial. The Fed also reported that not a single Mafia man was captured on surveillance cameras, either at the wake or at the funeral.

One Fed, commenting on his small presence, said: "Galante was so bad that people didn't want to see him, even when he was dead."

Even if the newspapers played the killing with horrific first page photos, the general public seemed imperative for the scale of the event. A young boy was walking up to a police officer standing guard.

"Was he an actor?" said the child of the policeman.

The policeman replied: "No, he was a gangster".

Let the Spirit move you

After so many sailing cruises in Silversea, I struggled with what to say about our 14-night transatlantic sailing that was never mentioned. If you want to read about an incredible Silversea service, you could go up to our first Silver Whisper sailing in 2002. Fast forward to 2009 if you want to read about a memorable anniversary dinner at Le Champagne on my birthday during our cruise. on the Silver Wind from Africa. And if you want to know how we feel about Silver Spirit, I was only with her in 2010 when we sailed from Santiago, Chile, to Acapulco, Mexico. What can we say about Silversea that we have not said before? But cruise reviews are instant in time. A cruise line or a ship can be great one year and not so great in the next. As ships age, crew members come and go, and the dynamics can change. So, when a cruise line like Silversea continues to "understand" it year after year, it is more than worth noting, it is historic. And let's face it: some things simply repeat themselves.

When we arrived at Bridgetown, Barbados, to board the Silver Spirit, we really felt like we were returning home. We see the crew members that we remember from cruises over the years and many remember their names. Even some of the other guests look familiar and we know that we have sailed with them on Silversea before. So we weren't too surprised when Roland, our excellent butler from Silver Shadow in China last year, greeted us when we arrived at our beautiful Silver Suite (1106) this year.

Boarding is always as smooth as glass on Silversea. Why don't every cruise line greet you on board with a glass of champagne? I don't know, do I? Anyone? Good? You only know that Silversea always does and has. Within five minutes of boarding, we were escorted to our silver apartment. Coming "home" couldn't be easier.

VESSEL

Silver Spirit is the newest and largest vessel in the Silversea fleet that went into service in 2010. We wondered if Silversea could offer the same level of service on a ship with 540 guests. Don't worry, Silversea offers excellent service regardless of the ship. The ship is masterfully designed so that it does not "feel" more than their other smaller vessels. The public spaces are spacious and comfortable. The interior decoration of the ship reflects an art deco design and presents more works of art than other Silversea ships. Silver Spirit is elegant, without being flamboyant.

ACCOMMODATION

Silversea has always had a reputation for spacious and luxurious accommodation. Even the most modest accommodations on Silversea deserve to be called "apartments". However, Silver Suite on Silver Spirit raises the bar for great design and comfort. Even though they are not the largest suites on the Silver Spirit, at 742 ft., The Silver Suites are more than twice as large as the base Verandah Suites.

The 26 Silver suites in Silver Spirit dominate decks 10 and 11 ahead and give occupants the feeling of being on a concierge level of a luxury hotel. Even the Observation Lounge on Deck 11 forward feels like a private retreat for Silver Suite guests, but of course it's available to every guest.

Entering the silver suite, guests walk down a hall to the dining room, where there is a round table, capable of sitting comfortably four. The table seems to accept a leaf that makes it larger and capable of hosting more. A very comfortable desk was soon consumed by the MacBook Pro, iPod and other devices. The office has four drawers and two large shelves. The only thing missing is several electrical outlets, a common surveillance of ship designers. There is a single 110 US outlet in the office. A small desk lamp and direct dial phone are the only items that occupy the office space.

A mini-fridge / bar / TV is located on the outside wall of the living room, with two large sliding doors on each side. A sophisticated espresso machine and an accessory occupy most of the space on this unit. Not having an espresso drink, I soon discovered that the machine and tray that hold espresso cups fit perfectly into the two shelves of the office unit. More space for my electronic equipment!

In front of the table there is the large sofa in the suite (which also turns into an extra bed), two chairs and a coffee table with a glass top. A small final table contains the Bang & Olufsen hi-tech CD / stereo player. A beautiful arrangement of fresh flowers decorated our coffee table.

Two large wooden sliding doors can be closed to completely isolate the master bedroom from any activity in the living room. This is useful for early mornings, when I want to work at the computer, get my coffee and watch Fox News while Rickee is asleep. I call the master bedroom, because the living room can be transformed into a bedroom by the sofa. The bedroom is spacious, elegant and very well appointed. The comfortable king size bed is flanked by two tables with lamps. A large makeup / vanity table with a large mirror is located near the bed and outside the traffic areas. Above the bed is another flat screen TV and storage unit, with several shelves hidden behind the doors.

Storage is the strong suit of the Silver Suite: the huge walk-in closet is not at all amazing and will even have guests on the Suite Suite occupants. You will never have to worry about running out of storage space in the Silver Suite. There are shelves everywhere, drawers and plenty of hanging space. A digital safe is inside a shelving unit, which was a perfect place for all cameras and video, and I have a lot of them.

Everything about the design of the bathroom is almost perfect. We can overlook the left-hand operation of the sink and simply be satisfied that there are two of them, not to mention a third in the powder room! A large shower room, lined with rich Italian marble, is spacious and has a spray gun with my hand stick (my favorite), as well as a rain head (Rickee's favorite) mounted in the ceiling. The shower even has a place! A full size Jacuzzi bath can be used for a soothing bubble bath and it was. I had the choice of bathroom facilities Ferragamo, Neutrogena or Bvlgari.

From the bathroom and the hallway of the suite there is a separate "powder room" with toilet and sink. Because the powder room is accessible from the lobby, it can be accessed by guests visiting your suite or others sharing the folding sofa, without invading your private bedroom space.

From the living room, there are two large sliding doors, which lead to a very spacious and well furnished veranda. Our veranda was equipped with a lounge chair, three wicker chairs, a large wicker ottoman and a small glass table, perfect for al fresco breakfast service.

After 14 days and nights in a silver suite, I should say I would easily rate 5 out of 5 on my graphic for comfort and design. It has more to it than almost any other suite we have enjoyed. In fact, the Silver Suite is so comfortable and spacious that it really feels like a home away from home.

DINING

Rickee and I are what you might call "experienced" cruises. After all, it is ours Business. We no longer feel it necessary to eat everything in sight when we are on a cruise. In fact, we try to maintain a fairly normal meal routine, not unlike the one we have at home. There are nights when you don't even go out for dinner, opting to stay in our suite and serve a light meal for room service. Fortunately, this is possible on Silversea. I can call Roland, our butler, at 7pm and order a Caesar chicken salad (one of my favorites), and a bowl of soup and Rickee might get an order with Asian spring rolls and a salad and that's it! I know it sounds boring, but it is we like and Silversea makes it possible.

Breakfast usually consists of Roland, bringing me hot water for my coffee and Rickee sleeping extra instead of the food. While most of the guests enjoy everything the amazing La Terrazza-type breakfast has to offer, we are in our suite, in our pajamas. On the port days, when we have to get up early for a trip, we will go to La Terrazza and order eggs, English bacon and Rickee likes pancakes. She also loves fresh fruits and is rich in La Terrazza. I have to rush to the mountains of bread and pastries to appease the low-carb Master I reluctantly serve. Breakfast is always in the restaurant on the day of landing. It is our tradition and we will not change it.

For lunch, we usually go to La Terrazza, and Rickee often enjoys nothing more than an excellent selection of salads. I tend to spend some quality time at meat stations, with a special focus on oriental dishes of the day. Of course, they have everything anyone could want on their beautiful buffet: a sculpture station that changes into every fried meat every day; fresh pasta station, to order; and yes, mountain bread … my bad temptation.

RESTAURANT

The restaurant is the traditional "cruise ship" dining spot on Silversea ships. However, the term "traditional" ends with the practice of offering three meals a day, with lunch and dinner menus changing daily. The Silver Spirit restaurant has a very welcoming decor and offers plenty of seating options for two, for those times when you want a little personal space. Guests can dine at any time and with anyone they wish (during working hours displayed) and no reservations are required.

Most guests skip the Restaurant for breakfast and lunch, choosing the delightful options offered at La Terrazza and the comfort of the buffet-style meal. In addition, dining on the deck is a great attraction when the weather is nice. So, if you prefer to have a quiet meal, consult the restaurant during these times. The service in the restaurant, like all dining places in Silversea, is crisp and efficient. A free red or white wine is offered for lunch or dinner. If the one offered is not to your liking, the wine steward will gladly try to find another one to your liking. Rickee and I like a semi-sweet Riesling, and after the first day, the wine stewards on board knew exactly what to pour for us. Now to stay Silversea!

The lunch and dinner menus change daily, with an emphasis on contemporary, healthy and regional cuisine. There are vegetarian options, wellness options and an oriental choice every day for lunch. And don't let the menus restrict you. If there is something you don't like on the menu, just ask. I like fried onion rings with my hamburger, but I'm not on the menu. No problem, all I had to do was ask and a plate of hot onion rings magically appeared! One evening, a small group of us wanted an Indian dinner. Again, this is not a problem. I made the request through our butler, Roland, and he prepared everything.

Le Champagne is the only Relais & Châteaux restaurant on the sea and can be found aboard every ship in the fleet, except for Silver Explorer. The menu at Le Champagne is continually changing to reflect the destination of the trip and offers guests an enhanced experience of authentic regional flavor. Guests can enjoy free wines or choose from Connoisseur's Rare Wine List, for a fee. On Silver Spirit, Le Champagne is an intimate, dark and elegant space, on deck 4, opposite Seishin and next to the Restaurant. A wine tower with floor to ceiling is the centerpiece of the Le Champagne setting. Certainly, Le Champagne is the most elegant and sophisticated alternative dining spot. The dress code in Le Champagne reflects the ship's daily dress code.

Reservations are required. The reservation fee for guests is 30 USD.

La Terrazza offers guests a selection of the best dishes in Italy. During the day, La Terrazza is the buffet restaurant for breakfast and lunch. Every evening, it is transformed into an intimate, romantic Italian dining spot. One of our favorites is fresh homemade pasta. And, no visit to La Terraza is complete without trying the Antipasto sampler platter. La Terrazza is the expression of Silversea's distinct heritage and partnership with Slow Food Promozione. The La Terrazza dress code is always informal or casual, depending on the evening dress code (no shorts or jeans, however), so for those looking for a casual alternative on formal nights, La Terrazza offers a delicious retreat.

SEISHIN RESTAURANT

Seishin Restaurant takes its name from the Japanese word for "spirit." This intimate restaurant aboard the Silver Spirit is located on Deck 4, across from Le Champagne and next to the Restaurant. Seishin specializes in Asian fusion cuisine, including regional dishes from Japan, as well as from China, Thailand, Vietnam and India. The central part of Seishin is the open sushi preparation station, where craftsmen can follow their artistic dishes being created by the sushi chefs. Seishin starts serving dinner every evening at 7.30pm and offers a selection of three set menus.

Seishin Teaser 1 is a 4-course tasting menu for seafood lovers. Teaser 2 is for those who prefer meat (poultry and beef) than fish. There is also a tasting menu with 8 dishes that combine seafood and meat. All Seishin menus start with a plate of sushi samples. However, I was able to request a special request instead of the Sushi platter (a Spicy Tuna Roll for me and a California Roll for Rickee). When browsing, there was a booking fee of $ 20 for Teaser 1 or Teaser 2 and a booking fee of $ 30 for the 8-course menu.

During the day at sea, Seishin offers a free sushi and sashimi bar for lunch. The dress code for dinner reflects the ship's daily dress code, but guests can dress informally and dine here on the formal night.

STARS SUPPER CLUB

We first dined at STARS in 2010, during our South American sailing on the Silver Spirit. Even though I am confused about the culinary point of view of STARS, I continue to be impressed by what it offers. STARS is one of the most unique culinary experiences you will find on any cruise ship or onshore restaurant for that matter. Silversea tries to create the atmosphere of an art-deco-inspired big-city dining club, where jazz musicians and singers entertain guests while enjoying an elegant meal. To this end, STARS delivers. The menu is a set, with several courses, of regional and seasonal delicacies, which can be enjoyed in "bites" in tapas style.

The atmosphere in STARS is understated and elegant, not unlike the rest of Silver Spirit. The jazz duo of Michelle Yap and Seandrea Earls gives STARS a retro club feel and offers a show worth visiting at STARS even without a meal. The service is crisp, polished and efficient, and the preparation and presentation of the food is unrivaled. STARS is Silver Spirit's best-kept culinary secret.

grill

Formerly called "Hot Rocks Grill", the Grill may have a new name, but the hot, volcanic, meat-making method remains the same. The Grill is one of the most popular alternative dining places on the Silver Spirit. Grill dress code is always casual and meals are served al fresco on decks 9 and 10 near the pool (weather permissible). The Grill menu is a paradise for meat lovers. On the menu is a thick steak with rib eye, mignon, beef, pork, lamb, shrimp and salmon.

In the most recent visit to The Grill, the meal starts with a basket of tortilla chips and guacamole bath. Free wines are offered with dinner (as in every Silversea dining place), so I chose a Cabernet from Chile. After a salad course, my rib eye steak was a thick plate of marbled beef, served on a 700-degree piece of volcanic stone. The interactive dining experience allows guests to cook their meat at the desired level. The easiest way is to cut the huge roast into smaller pieces to increase the surface area of ​​contact with the stone. Once the meat reached the medium (my preference), I began to move the pieces to the wooden base, where consumption soon followed. All meat dishes are accompanied by a baked potato and a vegetable brochure. A trio of dipping sauces adds an added flavor to the meat, which does not need any such help.

I am pleased to report that our most recent visit to The Grill reveals that this popular place is as good as we remembered.

ROOM SERVICE

As I mentioned earlier, many times, on a long cruise, Rickee and I will just stay in our suite, relax and enjoy the room service. Unlike most cruise lines, room service on Silversea is something to look forward to. It starts with our call to Roland, our butler, to place the order. Arrive with a tray with food and turn the dining table into an elegant table setting with a white table top, silverware and corn. It's like eating in the Restaurant, but with a TV! In fact, during lunch hours, you can order from the Restaurant menu and you can deliver items to the course-to-course suite if you wish.

Probably the most popular room service item is breakfast. Silversea offers books that you can complete and drop off the door of your suite the night before, so breakfast will be brought to your suite the next morning at the requested time. If you forget to fill in the card, just call your butler. We enjoyed breakfast in the room one morning and everything was delivered hot, fresh and delicious.

If you want, every afternoon, your butler can give you a selection of sofa in your suite. You can even order afternoon tea to be served in your suite. Nothing is impossible on a Silversea cruise!

PUBLIC SPACES

Being the largest and newest vessel in the Silversea fleet, Silver Spirit is capable of accommodating 540 guests with a crew of 376. Even when fully sailing, the staff-to-guest ratio is one of the highest in the industry. The ship is designed so that even when fully sailing, guests will never feel crowded or crowded. Staying in line is an experience that Silversea guests have to endure less often.

BAR

One of the most popular meeting places on Silversea ships is The Bar. Usually located just behind the salon on other vessels, The Bar on Silver Spirit departs from this tradition and is positioned in the middle of the ship, almost as part of the reception area. Decorated in cold blue and gold, the Bar invites guests throughout the day to socialize and enjoy free cocktails, soft drinks or special coffees. There is a small dance floor, and musical entertainment is offered all day and evening.

BOUTIQUES

Located on Deck 8 are the boutique shops. The collection of duty-free shops offers guests a wide range of jewelry, perfumes, watches, fashion and designer clothing. The objects of the Silversea logo have been extended and there is also a small selection of dryers in case you left home without sun protection or, in my case, a toothbrush!

COFFEE LIBRARY / INTERNET

The well-stocked library is located at the stern on deck 7, just in front of La Terrazza. There are hundreds of popular hardback titles arranged perfectly behind the glass doors. Unlike other ships, you do not have to "check" a book. Simply choose the book, take it with you and return it when you are done. What you won't find in the Library is a selection of DVD movies. Silver Spirit is the only Silversea ship with an interactive on-demand movie system that makes DVDs useless. There are more than 190 movies on the menu to enjoy in your suite and all are free!

Integrated into the Library is the Internet Cafe. There are seven workstations where guests can connect to the Internet to check email, internet browsing, etc. Internet rates are competitive with other cruise lines and can be purchased in discount packages:

  • Up to a minute .50 cents
  • 100 minutes for $ 45
  • 250 minutes for $ 85
  • 1000 minutes for $ 25

For those on longer cruises, the 1000-minute plan lowers the rate per minute to $ 0.25, the lowest I've seen on any ship. Internet service can also be accessed via the ship's Wi-Fi system and we had no problem getting a good connection from Silver Suite on Deck 11.

FITNESS CENTER AND SPA

The fitness center on Deck 8 is a great place for guests to work from those extra pounds that come from indulging in all the excellent Silver Spirit dining. There is a very nice selection of treadmills, vertical and upright bicycles, elliptical trailers, free weights and weight machines. Free yoga, stretching, aerobic and Pilates courses are organized by the on-board fitness trainer. A personal trainer is also available for an additional fee.

The 8,300 square meter spa is a sanctuary of personal happiness. The nine treatment rooms, indoor / outdoor relaxation areas and outdoor whirlpool make this the most elaborate spa in the fleet. Guests can enjoy a wide range of therapies, including facials, body wraps, massages and even acupuncture.

Men's and women's saunas and steam rooms are a great way to relax before or after your spa treatment or after a workout. An outdoor seating area offers a bar service, so you can enjoy a free fruit smoothie, champagne or cocktail while soaking in the spa whirlpool.

LOUNGE OBSERVATION

Located to the end on Deck 11 is The Observation Lounge. This lounge is just steps from our silver suite (1106) and is a wonderful place to enjoy picturesque days at sea. Cocktails and couch are served here every evening before dinner, making it a relaxing alternative to The Bar on Deck 5.

PANORAMA LOUNGE

Each Silversea ship has a Panorama Lounge and they are always popular gathering places for sweeping views of the ocean or port of call of the day. Often used for afternoon tea or as a nightclub, The Panorama is a great place to enjoy a cocktail before or after dinner. In our cruise, the team trivia is organized every day in Panorama.

START LOUNGE

No day would be complete without at least a visit to the Show Lounge on Deck 5. The big scene is flanked by two movie screens that bring you closer to the action. Show Lounge is a great place throughout the day for Silversea's extensive conference series, cooking demonstrations and big screen movies and, in the evening, production shows and entertainer shows. The places are comfortable and there is really no bad place in the house.

CASINO

Casino on Deck 8 features roulette, blackjack, poker and slot machines. Game tournaments were organized, and casino staff provided game lessons several times during the cruise. You must be 18 years old to play in the casino.

MEDICAL CENTER

There is a medical center on board with a doctor and a nurse who are available 24 hours a day. Some medicines are available. The opening hours are printed in the Daily Chronicles. Make sure you have travel insurance because a doctor's visit to a ship is never cheap. Rickee developed what he felt was a cold about three days on the cruise and visited the Medical Center on board, where the doctor examined it and prescribed three drugs. The total tax was $ 195.40.

automatic washes

Even though Silversea offers laundry, pressing and dry cleaning services for a fee, there are also free self-service laundries, located near the front stairs, on decks 5-11.

ACTIVITIES AND MAINTENANCE

Naval activities and entertainment become even more important when you are at sea for several days in a row. One of the reasons why some cruise aficionados are moving away from overseas is the fear that they will be boring. If there is a line between boring and relaxing, Silversea is firmly on the right side of this line. Cruise manager Don Fluke and his team did an excellent job of keeping guests busy with a variety of activities and entertainment options. Silversea arranged for a gentleman dance host to be on board to dance with the ladies.

LECTURES

Silversea has always had an excellent enrichment program, and this cruise was no exception. Over the years we have really come to enjoy the lecture series and let each cruise Silversea feel like we have learned something new. Silversea obviously underlines the enrichment of sailing for several days at sea. While browsing, we really enjoyed lectures by Morton Dean, former CBS and ABC correspondent. We especially enjoyed his videos from his Vietnam War correspondent missions. He and his wife Mary joined us on our 13-hour tour in Marrakech, Morocco.

In addition to Mr. Dean, there were three other informational readers on this trip. I previously sailed with Ambassador Adrian Sindall during a Silversea cruise in the Middle East a few years ago. It was nice to see him again and hear his excellent series on Middle East diplomacy and politics. Biologist Dr. George Losey educated us on all things oceanic, and Dr. Jerry Labriola enlightened us about crime and why criminals do what they do and have analyzed some famous lawsuits.

You probably won't find this anywhere else on the Internet. Below is the list of prizes and the number of points needed for each. And, of course, this can be changed at any time.

ARTISTILE SILVERSEI

Silversea has renewed its entertainment program with a series of concert-style productions created exclusively for Silversea by Choozi Entertainment. Artists from Silversea presents a distribution of classically trained vocalists, and the new shows offer a unique variety of musical styles, including Motown, opera, pop and rock.

The evening entertainment on Silver Spirit begins at the Show Hall at 10pm most evenings. The artists from Silversea, the cadres of the classically trained vocalists, held four shows during our cruise: "FABBAlicious!" it was a tribute to ABBA; "Signed, sealed, delivered", presented Motown's music; and "Decades", was a musical extravaganza that brought to life famous celebrities. There was a production al fresco around the pool: "Voices … The song of Billy Joel." The band members were featured in their own shows. For example, James Martin played in "Best and Most on Broadway," and the funny Dian Meechai followed the scene in "An Evening with Dian Meechai." În plus, The Artists of Silversea poate fi găsit în spectacole în alte locuri din jurul navei. Am fost distrați de duo-ul de jazz al lui Michelle Yap și Seandrea Earls în timp ce am luat masa la STARS Supper Club. Michelle și Sonny au participat la piscină în timpul mesei noastre la The Grill. Alți animatori care au apărut în diferite locuri din jurul navei au inclus: pianistul, Alfredo; pianistul Eric O'Bach; Trio-spiritul de argint; și DJ Oskar.

Silver Spirit a prezentat mai mulți animatori invitați în Salonul Show. Spectacolul de pian Kyle Esplin a distrat și violonistul internațional, Ralph Allin i-a impresionat pe toți cu priceperea sa la vioară.

FILMURI ȘI TELEVIZIE

Așa cum am menționat anterior, Silversea oferă peste 190 de opțiuni de filme prin intermediul sistemului interactiv video / TV al navei. Toate filmele sunt gratuite și chiar puteți salva, întrerupe, rebobina etc. când vizionați un film. În ceea ce privește programarea televizată, aceasta implică mai ales canale de știri internaționale. CNN, CNBC, MSNBC, Fox News, Sky News și BBC sunt disponibile. Există, de asemenea, mai multe canale de televiziune cu circuit închis care prezintă diverse informații legate de navă, cum ar fi vizualizarea de la camera de pe pod, informații despre excursii la mal, un canal Wine and Food, informații Spa & Boutique, precum și un canal în care puteți vizualiza refacerea. a prelegerilor de îmbogățire.

EXPERIENȚA SILVERSEI

Ne-am întâlnit un cuplu la prânz în turul Marrakech. Mike este doctor în Kansas care călătorește cu soția sa Patty. Mike nu este pasionatul tău tipic de croazieră. Nu putea să-i pese mai puțin de nopțile formale, de trivia, de punctele Silversea sau chiar de prelegeri pentru această chestiune. Mark este după un singur lucru și un singur lucru: relaxarea. Ideea lui despre vacanța perfectă este relaxarea la piscină cu cartea lui preferată. El nu vrea să „trebuiască” să fie oriunde, la un moment dat. El obține suficient de mult în viața sa de zi cu zi. Cred că Mike exemplifică „Silversea Experience”. Pe Silversea, puteți face aproape orice doriți sau nimic deloc și puteți face acest lucru într-un stil inegalabil.

Silversea este întâmpinat cu un pahar de șampanie la îmbarcare. Silversea are un majordom care poate descoperi cum să conectezi iPod-ul la televizor pentru a reda un film. Silversea își face prieteni noi din întreaga lume. Silversea este o masă de 5 stele, chiar și în confortul suitei tale. Silversea vizitează destinații interesante și exotice. Silversea are personal care te sună pe nume. Silversea nu trebuie să semneze niciodată un bilet pentru o sticlă cu apă, un pahar de șampanie sau o băutură răcoritoare. Există și alte linii de croazieră grozave, dar există o singură Silversea.

Restaurants Types and features

Broadly speaking, restaurants can be segmented into a number of categories:

1- Restaurants with chain or independent (indy) and franchises. McDonald's, Union Square Cafe or KFC

2- Quick service (QSR), sandwich. Burger, chicken and so on; convenience store, noodles, pizza

3- Quick casual. Panera Pan, Atlanta Bread Company, Au Bon Pain, etc.

4- Family. Bob Evans, Perkins, Friendly & # 39; s, Steak & # 39; s Shake, Waffle House

5- Casual. Applebee's, Hard Rock Caf'e, Chili's, TGI Friday's

6- Excellent food. Charlie Trotter, Morton & # 39; s The Steakhouse, Flemming & # 39; s, The Palm, Four Seasons

7- Other. Steakhouses, seafood, ethnic, dinner houses, celebrities and so on. Of course, some restaurants fall into several categories. For example, an Italian restaurant might be casual and ethnic. The main restaurant concepts in terms of sales have been pursued by Restaurants and Restaurants for many years

Institutions.

Chain OR INDEPENDENT

The impression that some huge chains of fast service completely dominate the restaurant business is misleading. Chain restaurants have some advantages and some disadvantages over independent restaurants. Benefits include:

1- Market recognition

2- Greater advertising influence

3- Development of sophisticated systems

4- Reduced purchases

In franchising, different types of assistance are available. Independent restaurants are relatively easy to open. All you need is a few thousand dollars, a knowledge of the restaurant's operations and a strong desire to

succeed. The advantage for independent restaurateurs is that they can "do their own thing" in terms of developing concepts, menus, décor and so on. Unless our habits and tastes change drastically, there are plenty of places for independent restaurants in certain locations. Restaurants come and go. Some independent restaurants will turn into small chains, and larger companies will buy small chains.

Once the small chains show growth and popularity, they will likely be bought by a larger company or be able to purchase financing for expansion. A temptation for the restaurateur started is to look at large restaurants in big cities and believe that their success can be duplicated in secondary cities. Reading restaurant reviews in New York, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, D.C. or San Francisco, it may seem that unusual restaurants can be replicated in Des Moines, Kansas City or Main Town, USA. Because of their demographics, these high-quality or ethnic restaurants will not click in small towns and cities.

5- Will go to the training from the bottom up and will cover all the operating areas of the restaurant Franchising involves the least financial risk, because the restaurant's format, including the building design, menu and marketing plans, have already been tested on the market. Franchised restaurants are less likely to fall apart than independent restaurants. The reason is that the concept is proven and the operating procedures are established with all (or most) of the kinks developed. Training is provided and support for marketing and management is available. However, the increased probability of success is not cheap.

There is a franchise fee, a royalty fee, an advertising fee, and substantial personal net worth requirements. For those lacking substantial experience in the restaurant, the franchise can be a way to get into the restaurant business, provided they are ready to start at the bottom and take an accident training course. Restaurant franchisees are entrepreneurs who prefer to own, operate, develop and expand an existing business concept through a form of business contractual arrangement called franchising. Of course, most restaurateur aspirants want to do their own thing – they have a concept in mind and are just waiting to call.

Here are samples of the costs involved in franchising:

1- A traditional Miami Subs restaurant has a fee of $ 30,000, a royalty of 4.5 percent and requires at least five years experience as a multi-unit operator, equity / business of $ 1 million and staff / business

net worth of $ 5 million.

2- Chili's require a monthly fee based on the restaurant's sales performance (currently a 4 percent service charge of monthly sales), plus the highest (a) monthly base rent or (b) ) percentage rent, which is at least 8.5 percent of monthly sales. .

3- McDonald's requires $ 200,000 of unpaid personal resources and an initial fee of $ 45,000, plus a monthly service fee based on the sales performance of the restaurant (approximately 4 percent) and the rent, which is a

monthly base rent or a percentage of monthly sales. Equipment and pre-opening costs range from $ 461,000 to $ 788,500.

4- The Express Pizza Factory units (200 – 999 square meters) require a franchise fee of $ 5,000, a 5 percent royalty and an advertising fee of 2 percent. Equipment costs range from $ 25,000 to $ 90,000, with various costs ranging from $ 3,200 to $ 9,000 and an opening inventory of $ 6,000.

5- Earl of Sandwich has options for a unit with a net worth requirement of $ 750,000 and a liquidity of $ 300,000; for 5 units, a net worth of $ 1 million and a liquidity of $ 500,000 is required; for 10 units, in net worth

of $ 2 million and a liquidity of $ 800,000. The franchise fee is $ 25,000 per location, and the royalty is 6 percent.

What do you get for all this money? Franchisors will ensure:

1- Help with site selection and revision of proposed sites

2- Assistance in designing and preparing the building

3- Help with preparation for opening

4- Training of managers and staff

5- Planning and implementing pre-opening marketing strategies

6- Visits to the unit and consulting of continuous operation

There are hundreds of franchise concepts for restaurants and they are not without risks. The restaurant owned or rented by a franchisee might fail, even if it is part of a well-known chain that is highly successful. Franchisees fail. An example of this is the highly prized Boston market, based in Golden, Colorado. In 1993, when the company's stock was first offered to the public at $ 20 per share, it was eagerly purchased, raising the price to a maximum of $ 50 per share. In 1999, after the company filed for bankruptcy, the share price fell to 75 cents. The contents of many of his stores were auctioned at

part of their cost.7 Forces were made and lost. One group that did not lose were the investment bankers who reunited and sold the stock offer and received a considerable fee for the services.

The bidding group also did well; they were able to sell their shares while stocks were high. Fast-food chains, known as Hardee's and Carl's, have also gone through periods of red ink. Both companies, now owned by a single owner called CKE, have experienced periods of up to four years where the actual earnings, as a company, were negative. (However, individual stores, owned by the company or franchised, may have done well in the downturn.) There is no certainty that a franchise chain will thrive.

At one point in the mid-1970s, A&W Restaurants, Inc., of Farmington Hills, Michigan, had 2,400 units. In 1995, the chain had a few more than 600. After purchasing that year, the chain expanded with 400 stores. Some of the extensions have taken place in non-traditional locations, such as kiosks, truck stops, colleges and convenient stores, where the full-service restaurant experience is not important. A restaurant concept can do well in one region, but not in another. The operating style can be extremely compatible with one operator's personality and not another's.

Most franchised operations require a lot of hard work and long hours, which many people perceive as managers. If the franchisee does not have enough capital and leases a building or land, there is a risk of paying more for the lease than the business can support. Relations between franchisors and franchisees are often strained, even in the largest companies. The goals of each one usually differ; Franchisees want maximum fees, while franchisees want maximum support in marketing and franchised services, such as employee training. Sometimes franchise chains get involved in litigation with their franchisees.

Because franchise companies have set up hundreds of franchises across America, some regions are saturated: more franchise units have been built than the area could support. Current franchise owners complain that adding more franchises only serves to reduce the sales of existing stores. Pizza Hut, for example, has stopped selling

franchises, except well-heeled buyers, who can take over a number of units. Overseas markets are a great source of income for several fast service chains. As you might expect, McDonald's has been a leader in overseas expansion, with units in 119 countries.

With about 30,000 restaurants serving about 50 million customers daily, about half of the company's profits come from outside the United States. Also, a number of other fast service chains have a large number of franchised units abroad. While the original restaurateur is rightly focused on being successful here and now, many bright, ambitious and energetic restaurateurs are thinking about future possibilities abroad. Once a concept is established, the entrepreneur can sell to a franchisor or, with many guidance, take the format abroad through the franchise. (It is crazy to build or buy in a foreign country without a partner who is financially secure and well versed in local laws and culture.)

McDonald's success story in the United States and abroad illustrates the importance of adaptability to local conditions. The company opens units in unlikely locations and closes those that are not performing well. Abroad, menus are tailored to suit local customs. In the crisis in Indonesia, for example, fried potatoes to be imported were removed from the menu and rice was replaced. Reading the life stories of the franchise's big winners may suggest that, once the franchise is well established, the path is clear. Thomas Monaghan, founder of Domino Pizza, tells another story. At one point, the chain had accumulated a debt of $ 500 million. Monaghan, a devout Catholic, said he changed his life by giving up the biggest sin, pride and rededicating his life to "God, family and pizza."

A meeting with Pope John Paul II changed his life and feelings toward good and evil as' & # 39; & # 39; personal and respected. & # 39; & # 39; Fortunately, in the case of Mr. Monaghan, the reissue worked well. Worldwide there are 7,096 Domino Pizza stores, with sales of approximately $ 3.78 billion per year. Monaghan has sold most of his interest in the company for a reported $ 1 billion and has announced that he will use his fortune for additional causes of the Catholic church. In the recent past, most food service millionaires have been franchisors, but a large number of restaurateurs, especially those enrolled in university studies courses in hotel and restaurant management, are not very pleased about being a fast-service franchisee.

They prefer to own or manage a full-service restaurant. Potential franchisees should review their food experience and access to money and decide which franchise is right for them. If they have little or no food experience, they may consider starting a restaurant career with a less expensive franchise, one that offers starter preparation. For those with experience wanting a proven concept, Friendly's chain, which began franchising in 1999, may be a good choice. The chain has over 700 units. The restaurants are considered family meals and have ice cream specialties, sandwiches, soups and service tables.

Let's emphasize this point again: You work in a restaurant you enjoy and may want to imitate in your own restaurant. If you have enough experience and money, you can fail on your own. Better, you work in a successful restaurant where a partnership or property might be possible or the owner is thinking of retiring and, for tax or other reasons, he may be willing to make payments on time.

Franchises are, in fact, entrepreneurs, many of them creating chains in chains.

McDonald's had the largest worldwide sales of a fast service chain, followed by Burger King. Wendy, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut and KFC followed. The subway, as one of hundreds of franchisors, achieved total sales of $ 3.9 billion. There is no doubt that, after 10 years, a list of the companies with the highest sales will be different. Some of the current leaders will see decreases in sales, and others will merge with or be bought by other companies, some of whom might be financial giants who have not previously engaged in the restaurant business.

The stages of abandonment of the American airline

I. Regulation

Although initially disrupted by the US airline, it was envisaged to lead to an increased number of carriers whose divergent conceptions of services, market segments, fleets and route structures would have created new competition, stimulated traffic and reduced tariffs, eventually the complete cycle came and resulted only in the virtual monopoly. Three distinct stages took place during its evolution.

The regulation itself dates back to 1938, when Congress passed the Civil Aeronautics Act. The five-member Civil Aviation Committee (CAB), formed two years later in 1940, regulated fares, authorized routes, subsidies granted, and approved interline agreements, among other functions.

"The regulation, by definition, replaces the decision of the regulatory authority with that of the market," according to Elizabeth E. Bailey, David R. Graham, and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book, Deregulating Airlines (The MIT Press, 1985, p. 96).

Thus, the regulated environment was, in fact, that an airline often had to resort to purchasing another carrier just to obtain the route authority. Delta Air Lines, for example, which has long been interested in providing non-stop service between New York and Florida, has continuously requested CAB for the rights. But the regulatory agency felt that Northeast, a small local service provider often affected by low traffic, financial loss and bad weather because of its route system, needed the potential of Florida's profitable route for increase it back to health and granted authority instead. .

Unfortunately, Delta eventually resorted to the acquisition of the regional carrier and subsequently received the approval for the merger on April 24, 1972. But these extremes will no longer be needed soon.

A future outlook might already be encountered in California and Texas. Without competence in local air transport, CAB could not exercise the tariff nor the authority of routes on the intercity airlines and these carriers, offering, as a rule, high-frequency, single-class services, without friction at half of the fares. the regulated "racing" airlines were forced. to perceive, it has constantly recorded both profit growth and traffic.

Air California and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines, for example, operating on the Los Angeles-San Francisco market, saw annual traffic growth from 1.5 million passengers in 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Southwest Texas-based airlines similarly provided low-fare services between Dallas and Houston and other parts of Texas. These airlines have shown that a true deregulation could generate fares accessible to middle-income passengers, can provide greater choice of airline and service concept and stimulate traffic.

Passengers and the government alike have increasingly enacted regulations in the mid-1970s, citing examples from Air California, PSA, Southwest and other embedded airlines as evidence that the disruption could produce mutual benefits. of airlines and passengers. At least that was the theory.

Ultimately, granting democratic reason and rule, President Jimmy Carter signed the Airline Withdrawal Act on October 28, 1978, eliminating the need for CAB approval of route entry and exit and reducing most of the current tariff restrictions. Even they would eventually be eliminated when the Civil Aeronautics Council, in its famous "sunset", was dissolved in 1985.

At the time of the event, eleven designated "trunk" carriers then collectively controlled 87.2 percent of domestic passenger miles (RPM) revenue, while 12 regional, 258 shuttles, five additional, and four embedded provided RPM distribution balance. What would the sky be like when the dust of the disturbance settles?

II. deregulation

First stage: New generation airlines:

As the airlines in California and Texas, a growing number of non-traction, deregulated carriers initially infiltrated the US market. The first of these, Midway Airlines, was the first to receive certification after passing the Airline Withdrawal Act and the first to actually launch the service in 1979.

Founded three years earlier by Irwing Tague, former Hughes Airwest executive, Midway launched the low-frequency, high-frequency, non-frictionless Rainbow Jet service in November of that year at Chicago's underutilized Midway Airport – which was once the only one. city ​​aerodrome. until O Hare was built and Midway hoped to revive the same as Southwest at Dallas' Love Field – with five single-class, 86-passenger TWA DC-9-10 , originally to Cleveland, Detroit and Kansas City. Its low tariff structure fostered rapid growth and strategically hoped to enter the Chicago market without attracting O'Hare competition from established carriers.

But, being hired by Midway, the author can attest that he has quickly learned three vital lessons, which indicated that he will have to remain extremely flexible in order to survive in competitive market conditions:

Although it served a secondary airport in the Chicago area, it primarily competed in the Chicago market.

Second, after existing airlines reduced fares, load factors decreased.

Finally, the high-density, low-fare strategy, which became the main feature of the memories generated by the disturbance, was ineffective when an airline tried to deal with a particular market segment, such as the one with a market segment. Higher business efficiency, where increased comfort and service was expected.

As a result, Midway has changed its strategy by introducing a cream-colored preservative delivery; single-class, four-seater, business cabin seats, with increased legroom; extra luggage space; and a modernized, free wine flight service, in exchange for fares higher than Rainbow Jet, but those that were still under the unrestricted carrier fares of major carriers.

The recently implemented strategy, called "Midway Metrolink", significantly reduced the number of seats on the aircraft. While DC-9-10 and -30 housed, respectively, 86 and 115 passengers, for example, they were reconfigured for only 60 and 84 in the new Metrolink strategy.

Apparently successful, it caused an explosive increase, from 56,040 initial passengers in 1979 to nearly 1.2 million in 1983.

Capitol Air, another carrier transformed into a disorder of which the author was a part, also experienced an initial rapid expansion. Formed in 1946 under the name Capitol Airways, it started the national charter service with Curtiss C-46 Commandos and DC-4s, eventually obtaining the larger L-049 Constellations, and by 1950 became the fifth largest. additional carrier from USA after World Airways, Overseas National (ONA), Trans International (TIA) and Universal. It acquired the first of what was to become one of the largest Super-Constellation fleets used in January 1960, eventually operating 17 L-749s, L-1049Gs and L-1049Hs over the 14-year period, from 1955 to 1968.

Redesigned Capitol International Airways, the charter airline took over its first pure jet in September 1963, a DC-8-30, and subsequently operated four versions of the McDonnell-Douglas design, including the 30, -50, – Series 61, and – 63, which replaced the Lockheed Constellation as the working chief of his fleet.

Receiving the scheduled authority in September 1978, Capitol inaugurated New York-Brussels service on May 5 of the following year and a second Chicago / Boston-Brussels transatlantic sector on June 19 As PSA and Southwest, Capitol Air, a former supplementary carrier, did not was regulated by CAB and, therefore, conducted its own "experiment of deregulation" by sublimating the proven economy of the single-density, high density, low unrestricted charter and even waiting for the scheduled service to obtain costs and low profitability.

The programmed concept, marked "Sky Saver Service", constantly attracted demand that exceeded the capacity and caused a considerable expansion of the fleet and the route system. Operating six DC-8-61s, five DC-8-63s and five DC-10-10s at seven US, three Caribbean and three European destinations from a New York-JFK hub by 1982, attracted one constantly increasing passenger base: 611,400 passengers in 1980, 1,150,000 in 1981 and 1,824,000 in 1982.

Passengers, unaware of the carriers many disturbances whose low fares could only obtain profitability with used aircraft, seats with high density seats and employees with lower salaries, who have no salaries, often voiced criticism of the non-interlinear policy Capitol Air and refusal to provide meals and hotel rooms during delays and compensations during connections with other lost airlines. However, its rates on the New York-Los Angeles market ranged from $ 149 without restrictions, based on a round-trip purchase to $ 189 round-the-clock, while the major unrestricted major fares rose to the record high. $ 450. As a result, Capitol Air's load factors exceeded 90%.

By September 1981, ten new carriers received operating certificates and inaugurated the service.

"The first effects of the disorder were dramatic," wrote Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Contests and Cartels of World Airlines (Random House, 1984, p. 136). "A new breed of airline entrepreneurs has seen the opportunity to expand small companies or establish" instant airlines "that could reduce fares on local routes; they could dispense much of the superstructure and bureaucracy of the big airlines and could use their flexibility to hit the giants at their weakest points, where they could return quickly. "

Four types of airlines have emerged and have had a considerable initial impact on the traditionally regulated airline industry.

The first ones were the disturbing memories, such as Air Atlanta, Air Florida, Air One, Altair, West America, Best, Carnival, Empire, Florida Express, Frontier Horizon, Jet America, Midway, Midwest Express, MGM Grand Air, Morris Air, Muse Air, New York Air, Northeastern International, Pacific East Air, Pacific Express, PEOPLExpress, Presidential, Reno Air, SunJet International, Hawaii Express and ValuJet.

The second was disrupted local service carriers, including Allegheny, Frontier, Hughes Airwest, North Central, Ozark, Piedmont, Southern and Texas International, which were rapidly exceeding their geographic concentrations required by regulation.

Third, the embedded airlines that cross the borders included companies such as Air California (later AirCal), Alaska, Aloha, Hawaii, PSA, Southwest and Wien Air Alaska.

Fourth were charter-transformed charter, such as Capitol Air, Trans International (later Transamerica) and World Airways.

Although some of these carriers, in particular Air One and MGM Grand Air, targeted very specific market niches by offering premium seats and services, the vast majority, whether raised, raised or matured by deregulatory parenting, have reached (or tried to) get) cost-effective means for several basic operating features, including, of course, low, unrestricted rates, a single hub, short to medium distance route systems, high density seats, limited on-board service, power work with lower wages and a medium range, medium-capacity triplets such as 727, and short-term, low-capacity twinjets such as BAC-111, DC-9, 737 and F.28.

All of them have achieved high load factors, generated extraordinary traffic on existing and emerging markets and created considerable competition.

"In this regard," wrote Barbara Sturken Peterson and James Glab in their book, Rapid Descent: Deregulation and the Shakeout in the Airlines (Simon and Schuster, 1994, p. 307), "the disorder worked like a charm."

Second stage: Monopoly:

Although established, traditionally regulated major carriers have temporarily reduced their tariffs on selected markets concentrated with deregulation airlines, to maintain their passenger bases, established, cared for and protected airlines have not been structured to a profitable operation with them. However, even in those cases where they managed to eliminate competition from the market, another low tariff step seemed to wait in the wings to fill the void.

Thus, the carriers were faced with the possibility of giving up the developed markets very carefully or of reducing the financial resources to retain the passengers until they themselves went bankrupt. It was quickly shown that the reductions in the tariffs caused by the deregulation will become permanent elements of the "new" industry of the unregulated airlines, and the major carriers have finally discovered that they must restructure or transfer to the new airline. Almost all aspects of their operations would ultimately be transformed.

The first aspect was the route system. Traditionally, it consisted of a non-stop, point-to-point service, which originated in 1940 and 1950 CAB route authorizations, these route systems did not at all contain an inherent "system" and consisted of instead of unbalanced geographical enclosures that led to loss of revenue to other carriers and inefficient, uneconomic use of existing fleets. What was really needed was a centralized "collection point" for self-feeding.

Due to the bilateral agreements, the European carriers actually operated the first "hubs", which channel the passengers from Copenhagen to Athens with the help of an intermediate connection point, such as Dusseldorf. Any passenger that will cover the Copenhagen-Dusseldorf or Athens-Dusseldorf sector could theoretically transfer to any of the airlines that radiates outward, greatly increasing the number of potentially serviced markets. These European capital centers have also shown increased use of aircraft, improved traffic flow, a larger market base than traditional point-to-point services, relying solely on origin and destination traffic. and keeping the passenger connected.

"Although passengers prefer a frequent non-stop service, such a service can be quite costly," according to Bailey, Graham and Kaplan (p. 74). "Airlines thus face strong incentives to establish hub-and-speak operations. By combining passengers with different backgrounds and destinations, a carrier can increase the average number of passengers on the flight and thus reduce costs. In essence, the wider operating range allows the carrier to benefit from the economies of scale of aircraft. At the same time, a hub and spoke operation offers more convenient services to travelers in less-traveled markets. "

The first US hub originated in the 1940s, when the government, trying to develop the south, gave Delta long-haul, cost-effective routes in exchange for its agreement to serve more small communities in Atlanta.

"All of these routes have become 'spikes' leading to a 'Delta' hub in Atlanta," said Peterson and Glab (p. 120). "With this came the convincing benefit of detaining passengers."

Allegheny, the former Pittsburgh-based local service operator with no distinct long-term development plan, has achieved considerable success on the Eastern and Central Atlantic State Route network, which has progressively evolved because of its point of entry into Pennsylvania. Increasing the balance of its systems of mainly business routes and communities with longer-range sectors of leisure-oriented destination, was still able to feed this evolution and until 1978 73% of its passengers connected. By 1981, that figure had risen to 89 percent, which means that 89 percent of those flying to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh didn't fly to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

The Delta and Allegheny centers were just the beginning of the phenomenon, because the concept did more than create an airline concentration in a particular city. Instead, it resulted in a final monopoly strangulation that prevented any competition.

At four of the major US hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-Hare, Dallas-Ft. Worth and Denver), for example, "the two big carriers simply expressed or made it virtually impossible for other companies." to expand and gain market share, "wrote Julius Maldutis in the Airline Competition at the 50 largest US airports at Deregulation (Salomon Brothers, Inc., 1987, p. 4).

In Atlanta, where both Delta and the East once had hubs, the possibility of any significant competition with third parties was eliminated. In 1978, for example, the percentages of traffic in the Delta and the East were respectively 49.65 and 39.17 percent, while nine years later these figures increased to 52.51 and 42.24 percent.

Analysis of the 50 largest airports (which accounted for 81.1 percent of scheduled passenger plans in the US) indicated that only ten of these airports could be considered less than highly concentrated. On the other hand, 40 (or 80 percent) of the airports had excessive concentrations. The ten most concentrated airports had an airline that owned more than 66% of the market share of passenger plans.

In St. Louis, where TWA and Ozark operated hubs, the former enjoyed a market share of 39.06 percent, while the latter had a 20.21 percent share in 1978. In 1986, these corresponding figures increased to 63.16 and 19.68 percent. The following year, after TWA acquired Ozark, its only significant competitor, it distributed this share at 82.34 percent, with nine other domestic US airlines sharing the remaining 17.66 percent. A list of airline computers, reflecting all carriers operating between the three major airports in New York and St. Louis, on December 1, 1995, revealed 27 flights to this day. None of them were operated by any other operator than TWA! This was power.

Similarly, the Piedmont matured disorder, which only captured a 10.19 percent market share in Charlotte, North Carolina, in 1977, spread into a 87.87 percent monopoly a decade later, after established a hub there. The same transformation took place in Pittsburgh with Allegheny / USAir / US Airways – 43.65 percent in 1977 and 82.83 percent in 1987.

"Since a large part of the markets with city pairs cannot support convenient non-stop service, hub and speech operations have proven to be the dominant strategy for deregulation air carriers," wrote Bailey, Graham and Kaplan ( p. 196). "There has been a significant change from the regulatory vision of the linear systems and to the insulations of the routes."

In addition to the hubbing concept, major carriers have undergone several other fundamental changes. Planes, for example, have been reconfigured for higher density seats and, in some cases, for a single class, while business cabs have expanded first-class sections and coaches on selected routes; The first-class cabins were subsequently completely replaced by those of the business class in a trend-setting model, created by certain deregulation airlines with a special niche.

Fuel inefficient aircraft types have been gradually replaced by new generation projects, and daily use has increased from 8.6 hours in 1971 to 10.3 hours in 1979. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the average size of aircraft was increased in the long-range sectors, while in the late 1980s the size increased in all categories. In the early '90s, pure jet technology first entered all markets – from 50 regional passengers to 500 intercontinental passengers.

Employment has also been metamorphosed. According to Robert Crandall, former president and chief executive officer of American Airlines, "the disturbance is deeply anti-labor … there has been a massive transfer of wealth from the airline's employees to the airline's passengers."

The air fare reductions generated by the deregulation produced a lower revenue and profit base, from which the financing could be re-framed in traditional high-wage salaries and benefit packages, thus requiring employee productivity, cross-use, part-time, nonunion , profit sharing measures. In some cases, the hires were actually insured by the companies contracted for ground services to reduce the compensation for benefits. The author was involved in the initial experiment of the ground services company at JFK International Airport, between Triangle Aviation Services and Royal Jordanian Airlines.

"A relatively new but rapidly developing concept, the service company provides contract staff to the special carrier for whom a certain daily quota is assessed, based on the airport-based airline career (Hicksville, New York, 1995, p. 9). ). "The service company then hires the staff, runs the training programs (if applicable) and determines the hourly wage and benefits package."

After I wore the Jordan Royal uniform and provided all the ground functions, I often felt "trapped in the middle", trying to thank both the passenger and the airline at the same time. After all, they were both my clients, revealing the inherent conflict of the concept.

The low salaries and benefits of the airline employees actually follow their origin to Crandall himself, who devised a plan to reduce the costs of hiring with a "B scale" payment scheme, which initially offered lower salaries to new employees and imposed them to achieve greater longevity before being able to reach the "A-scale" higher levels.

"The American (itself) was able to grow enormously in size and had a strong incentive for it," Peterson and Glab said (p. 136). "The more it expanded, the more workers would all be employed at lower salaries on the B-scale – and the lower its average costs would be."

According to Bailey, Graham and Kaplan in their activity, "Airline deregulation", the regulation created a higher level of industry, monetary compensation and benefits. "It is now clear that inflexible labor rules and higher-than-competitive wages have flourished during regulation. It appears that the airline's employees have benefited substantially from CAB's protection regulations." (p. 197)

Another need for deregulation was the increasing reliance on automation. American Airlines, again run by Crandall, created the first computerized airline reservation system, SABER, which was immediately followed by the United Apollo System. As powerful sales tools, these automated systems were purchased by travel agents who paid the owners a different fee for each booking made while smaller carriers had to negotiate for representation.

These systems have become so sophisticated and multi-faceted that their information has been progressively sublimated by each aspect of the airline's operation, with "booking modes" offering reservations, itineraries, rates, hotel, tour and ground transportation, frequent flight reservations and ticketing; "Their departure control systems" (DCS) that ensure passenger check-in and issue of the boarding permit; and "their modes of control" that use this information for the weight and balance of the aircraft and for the loading plan and the generation of the worksheets.

Only through these sophisticated airline reservation systems, carriers were able to implement "performance management" programs – meaning determining the optimized balance of attracting passengers and high profit-generating rates, based on season, departure time, demand. , convenience, capacity and competition to produce a ultimately profitable flight. A consultation on the airline reservation system, for example, listed 27 separate fares between New York and Los Angeles on December 1, 1995, with American Airlines alone, ranging from an unrestricted $ 1,741.82 first class fare, up to a $ 226.36 round-trip bus fee. . The codes in the "Tariff Bases" column, such as "KPE7HOLN", were accessed to reveal the restrictions attached to each one – whose print included several pages!

Another fundamental change of the deregulated industry was both the structure and the relationship of the regional and transport carriers with the major vessels. Because history is sometimes cyclical, the model once demonstrated by local service airlines abandoning small, low-density community routes when they again purchased pure jet aircraft, but now with two primary differences: (1). The present regions have never, by regulation, been restricted to these routes and (2). Although they expanded rapidly with pure jet fleets, they tried to coexist, rather than compete, with the majorities through code sharing agreements, in which their aircraft appeared in girls similar to most, and their flights carried the two letters of airline affiliate codes.

Of the 300 destinations served by Delta in the latter part of 1995, for example, 85 were actually reached by one of its four "Delta Connection" code-share carriers, including Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA), Business Express, Comair, and Skywest – just the first of which still had to purchase pure jet equipment then. The Americans purchased their own shipping lines abroad and collectively named them "American Eagle".

However, the necessary restructuring of the major carrier deregulation was complete.

When TWA matched Capitol Air's unrestricted transcontinental bus fares, the former addition booked 30 passengers on DC-8-61 aircraft, otherwise they could accommodate 252 and cancel their flights. In a similar situation, when analyzing the load factors of PEOPLExpress USAir and upstart, on the Buffalo-Newark market, between August 1981 and June 1982, the latter consistently reported those with at least 20 lower points. .

"The data thus suggests that many consumers have chosen to travel the carrier with better name recognition and facilities when the rate is the same," continued Bailey, Graham and Kaplan (p. 106).

Competition eventually forced Capitol Air to align its route system to include an increasing number of ethnic and undocumented markets and until the majorities were also engaged in this territory, and the carrier remained without too many options than to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, ceasing operations. on November 25, 1984.

In the middle of the city there was also an opposition with the major carriers. Indeed, no matter what strategy he has implemented to define his optimal niche, it has always been countered by the aggressive majors. Purchasing Air Florida in 1984, for example, reconfigured its aircraft with dual-class seats, but riding on both sides of a drying basket, it soon returned to the single-class concept, and in November 1989, again to double class one, at which time it operated a fleet of 82 people with the affiliation "Midway Connection" and carried 5.2 million passengers annually.

Dar supraexpansiunea și o încercare de a înlocui Orientul în centrul său din Philadelphia în perioadele economice slabe, în concurență directă cu USAir, au dus la dispariția proprie doi ani mai târziu, pe 13 noiembrie.

"Deși aceste numeroase strategii au indicat o reevaluare constantă a cursului său adecvat, acestea au indicat, de asemenea, instabilitatea condițiilor de piață pe cerul neregulat și determinarea companiei aeriene de a rămâne în ele și rezistența acesteia de a le naviga cu o juxtapunere a conceptelor de serviciu, configurații cabină, scaune densități și strategii de marketing ", conform The McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 (Hicksville, New York, 1991, p. 59).

Capitol Air și Midway au fost doar două exemple de transportatori maturizați de dereglare care au cedat majorității radicale restructurate. Într-adevăr, din cele aproximativ 100 de companii aeriene care au fost certificate de la adoptarea Legii privind retragerea companiei aeriene, doar una, America West, încă funcționa la sfârșitul anului 1995.

"(Marile companii aeriene) au implementat o strategie cu ajutorul căreia puteau învinge competiția tarifelor mai mici la propriul joc prin extinderea și taxarea agresivă a tarifelor comparabile, în ciuda pierderilor mari pe anumite rute, toate în efortul de a menține sau, în unele cazuri, , pentru a recâștiga cota de piață … Principalii transportatori au devenit puternici și monopolisti prin eliminarea concurenței oriunde a fost întâlnită ", conform Austrian Airlines Pasager Handling Handling Manual-JFK (Hicksville, New York, 1990, p. 10-11).

Etapa a treia: Megacarrier:

Expansiunea liniei aeriene, odată pusă în mișcare, părea autopropulsată și a rezistat la inerție. Prin definiție, monopolurile nu cunosc granițele. Pasul următor logic a fost penetrarea pieței externe.

Spre deosebire de creșterea internă a Statelor Unite, „cu toate acestea,„ o companie aeriană americană a fost mult mai dificilă pentru a avea acces la o nouă piață externă decât una nouă internă, deoarece serviciile aeriene internaționale erau încă strict reglementate prin acorduri bilaterale între Statele Unite și guvernele străine ", au scris Peterson și Glab (p. 283). "… Pentru a câștiga drepturi de operare imediată într-o țară străină, un transportator american a trebuit să cumpere autoritatea rutelor de la o altă companie aeriană din SUA."

Fenomenul, va fi amintit, a fost o repetare virtuală a structurii guvernamentale interne americane înainte de dereglare. O astfel de achiziție în ultimul caz a fost acordată de obicei numai dacă compania aeriană autorizată de rută a fost în dificultate financiară și a avut nevoie ca veniturile generate de vânzare să rămână viabile.

Pan Am, în special lovit de efectele dereglării, a fost nevoit să-și vândă divizia lucrativă din Pacific, împreună cu aeronavele și facilitățile de la sol, către United pentru 750 de milioane de dolari pentru a rămâne pe linie. United, deja o companie aeriană mare, financiară, avea acum o rețea globală de rute cu alimente interne adecvate.

Mai importantă decât vânzarea, însă, au fost implicațiile sale de anvergură. "Achiziția United Airlines din divizia Pacific Pan Am urma să pună un efect domino", au continuat Peterson și Glab (p. 148) "Multe companii aeriene au fost alarmate de noua competiție cu care s-au confruntat, în special de Nord-Vest, care s-a opus celei mai mari companii aeriene din țară. mutând pe gazonul său Pacific. Nord-vestul știa că va avea nevoie de o rețea internă substanțial mai mare, iar cea mai rapidă modalitate de a obține unul ar fi printr-o fuziune. "

Până la sfârșitul anului 1986, aceasta făcuse doar asta, dobândind Republica, care în sine fusese formată din fuziunea Nord Central-Sud în 1979 și achiziția secundară Hughes Airwest în 1980, iar strategia a răsplătit Northwest cu statut de monopolist la toate punctele sale , cum ar fi Minneapolis, cu o cotă de piață de 81,55%.

Delta, fearing it would be unable to compete with airlines of such magnitude, acquired Western Airlines for $860 million in September of 1986, in the process obtaining a coast-to-coast route structure and new hubs in Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

The already described TWA-Ozark merger produced such a lock on St. Louis that it controlled three-quarters of all gates and was able to assess much higher fares in those markets where there was no competition.

In fact, these mergers only served to tighten a carrier's already almost unrelenting grip on a particular hub. Deregulation-spawned Empire, for instance-a rapidly-expanding New York State Fokker F.28 Fellowship operator-adopted a Syracuse hub and recorded an initial 1979 market share of just.75 percent, but this exponentially increased to 27.36 percent in 1985 when Piedmont acquired the growing regional. Two years later, its market share climbed to 39.82 percent. However, when USAir in turn purchased Piedmont, the Syracuse hub lock skyrocketed to over 61 percent.

Perhaps the most encompassing (and disjointed) merger was that between PEOPLExpress and Continental, which itself had already been the result of an amalgamation between the original, pre-deregulation Continental, Texas International, and New York Air. PEOPLExpress had equally already absorbed Denver-based Frontier. Texas Air, owner of the new conglomerate, also acquired Eastern, but retained its separate identity.

All these mergers, consummated during the latter half of 1986, unequivocally produced the "megacarrier."

"Deregulation's theme, echoing Darwinian philosophy, clearly demonstrated itself to be 'survival of the fittest,' which, for the airlines, translated as 'survival of the largest,' according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Service Manual-JFK (p. 10). "If the long-established major carriers… wished to survive and maintain the markets they had so carefully nurtured during regulation, they would somehow have to implement a strategy which would ensure that they would remain 'large.'"

The major airlines' fundamental restructuring, beginning with monopoly and ending with megacarrier, constituted that strategy, as carriers tracing their origins to the infantile days of aviation and bearing names virtually synonymous with the industry fell like a string of acquisition-induced dominoes. By 1995 only seven US megacarriers remained, including American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, United, and USAir, along with two significant majors-America West and Southwest-a few "niche" airlines, and the regional-commuters which were almost exclusively aligned with one of the megacarriers or majors through code-share agreements.

Even these names disappeared early in the 21st century. Like brides and grooms walking down a monopoly-destined aisle, Delta married Northwest, United took Continental as its lawfully wedded, American joined arms with US Airways, and Southwest tied the knot with AirTran.

III. Concluzie

Although the examples set by Air California, PSA, and Southwest had indicated that a deregulated environment would ultimately prove to be mutually advantageous to both the operating airline and the passenger, these experiments failed to approximate actual conditions, since the rest of the US airline industry was still regulated and these fledgling airlines had therefore been insulated from major-carrier competition. Lacking the authority, cost structure, and equipment, they had been unable to launch comparable service of their own.

The initial proliferation of small, low-fare, no-frills, non-unionized deregulation-spawned, -bred, and -transformed airlines provided tremendous airline-, fare-, and service concept-choice only until the major carriers implemented their fundamental route system, aircraft, employment, computerized reservation system, and regional airline affiliation restructuring, reversing the expansion phase into one of buyout, merger, bankruptcy, retrenchment, consolidation, monopoly, and, ultimately, megacarrier. The upstarts, having lacked the majors' name recognition, financial strength, frequent flier marketing tools, and size, invariably succumbed, leaving most of the original dominant airlines, although in greatly modified form, until even these surrendered to prevailing forces. US airline deregulation had thus come full cycle.

Mobsters – Big Bill Dwyer – King of the Rum Runners

It started out as a simple dockworker, aimed to start on a large scale and was known as the "King of Rum Runners". Big Bill Dwyer made so much money, he was a partner with known gangsters in several swanky nightclubs in New York. Dwyer also owned two professional hockey teams, including the Americans in New York, and was the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers football team. However, in the end, when Big Bill Dwyer died, he died from the spotlight and broke flat.

William Vincent Dwyer was born in 1883 in the Hells Kitchen area of ​​western New York City. Two bands, Hudson Dusters and Gophers, led Hell's Kitchen at the time, but Dwyer avoided joining both bands and instead took a job on the docks as a steward for International Longshoremen's Union (ILU).

While working on the docks, Dwyer started his own house-building operation. After the Volstead Act was adopted in 1919, banning the distribution of alcohol, with the money he made from the bookmaker, Dwyer branched out into the boot business. Dwyer purchased a fleet of steel-plated speedboats, each with a mounted machine gun, in case scammers tried to hijack a shipment. Dwyer also purchased several large running vessels that were needed to unload the illegal storm from any boat they supplied.

Dwyer traveled to Canada, England and the Caribbean to liaise with those who sold him the liquor he needed to smuggle in the United States. Then, Dwyer set up a system whereby his ships would meet ships, which supplied his liquor, many miles offshore. There, the humidifier was transferred to Dwyer's ships, then quickly transported to Dwyer's speedboats, which were closer to the shore of New York City.

The speedboats were unloaded at docks, which were protected by ILU Local 791, of which Dwyer was a charter member. From the docks, the liquor was moved to several warehouses in the New York area. When the time came, trucks dumped alcohol and protected by the convoy of team members, hauling hotspots across the country: heavy transportation to Florida, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati and as far as New. Orleans.

Dwyer managed to smuggle large amounts of smugglers into New York because he knew one simple fact: you had to bribe the police and the Coast Guard if you wanted to be successful in the boot business. And that's what Dwyer did, handing out thousands of dollars to those who needed to be anointed.

New York cops' pay was easy. The cops who did not have their hands out for graft money were very few among them. However, Dwyer was particularly adept at recruiting Coast Guard members to look the other way when his speedboats entered New York's waters.

Dwyer's first contact was Coast Guard Officer Olsen. Through Olsen, Dwyer met thousands of coast guards, the "Guards" he called, who might be willing to take bribes. Dwyer would bring these guards in the bright lights of New York, where he would feed them sumptuous meals, take them to Broadway shows, and even get them a cramped hotel room occupied by the lady of choice. , which Dwyer would also pay. Once a Guardian took a bribe from Dwyer, he was told he could earn hundreds and sometimes thousands of dollars more if he could enlist other Guardsmen to help protect Dwyer's shipments.

Soon, Dwyer made so much money by bootlegging, he is considered the largest distributor of illegal alcohol in the entire United States. However, Dwyer had a huge problem, which he needed help solving. Whenever one of his trucks left New York to distribute smugglers to other parts of the country, they were vulnerable to being confiscated by the hundreds of hijackers operating throughout the country. Dwyer knew how to stop this from happening to partners – members of the Italian mafia and Jewish mafia. Because he made millions in profits, Dwyer didn't bother and could certainly afford to share his wealth. The problem was that Dwyer was no more than a businessman and not a gangster himself. Dwyer needed someone from the underworld who could make the contacts Dwyer needed to keep working, without fear of being hijacked.

Almost by accident, that person fell right into Dwyer's lap. In 1924, two of Dwyer's transports were diverted to New York State. Dwyer leaned on the police officers on his payroll to find out who was responsible for the kidnapping. Soon, Word returned to Dwyer that the perpetrator, who was arrested for kidnapping, was none other than Owney Madden, an Irishman himself, who grew up in Liverpool, England, before emigrating to New York as a teenager. Madden was a vicious spouse nicknamed the "Killer" and had once ruled Gopher's criminal gang in Hell's Kitchen.

Dwyer paid who needed to be paid for the expenses to be reduced against Madden, with the command: "Get me Owney Madden. I want to talk to him. I have a business proposal that we need to discuss. "

Madden gave his word on who his benefactor was and that a meeting with Dwyer was expected instead. The two men met at Dwyer's office in Loew & # 39; s State Building in Times Square. There is no record or transcript of this meeting, but T.J. The Englishman, in his masterpiece about Irish gangsters, called Paddy Whacked, said the conversation between Madden and Dwyer could have happened something like this:

– You have a problem, Madden would have told Dwyer. "Gangsters got you off the truck like sitting ducks and what are you going to do about it?"

"That's why I called you here."

"You have to organize the shooters and the cherries, not to mention bulls (policemen) and policemen (politicians)."

"You're right. I need the diversion to stop me. I need a place to make my own drink right here in the city. Protected by the Tiger and the cops. And I need outlets – speakeasies, clubs by night, you call him. "

"You need a lot, my friend.

"You're with me?"

"Give me a reason why."

"I can make you rich."

"Pal, you and I are two peas in a pod."

And this was the beginning of the Irish New York City mob, which would then join Italian and Jewish mobsters to control the booting activity throughout the United States. The grouping of the three ethnic groups was known as "Combine".

With Dwyer's millions, Madden oversaw the creation of the Phoenix cereal beverage company, located at 26th and 10th Avenue, right in the heart of Hell's Kitchen, where both Madden and Dwyer had grown up. This red brick building, which encompassed the entire block, was originally the Clausen & Flanagan Brewery, which was created to produce and sell close-range beer, which no real beer drinker would let pass their lips. The beer brewed in Phoenix was called Madden's No. 1.

With Dwyer, practically the money man behind the scenes, Madden became the architect who created and nurtured their empire. Madden brought in a former taxi business owner, named Larry Fay, as the main man for several high-class units that were needed to sell Madden no. 1, plus all the scotch, rum, vodka, cognac and champagne that Combina was smuggled into the city. One of those places was El Fay at 107 West 54th Street.

The main attraction at El Fay was Texas Guinan, a talkative singer / comedian, who was later copied by May West. To encourage Guinan to work in El Fay, Madden and Dwyer made Guinan a partner. Guinan was famous for her seams, which she escaped from the claws of a clapper or crunch from a piercing whistle, as she sat on a high stool in the main room. Guinan's signature was saying "Hello Sucker," as he greeted all well-heeled clients at El Fay.

When a singer or dancer finished his show at El Fey, Guinan would urge the crowd to "Give your little one a great big hand!"

One day, a banning agent, who couldn't be bought by Madden or Dwyer, attacked El Fey. He turned to Guinan, put his hand on his shoulder and said to his agent colleague, "Give your little one a big handcuff.

Dwyer did what he did best, Guinan was released from prison, and El Fey soon jumped in again, making everyone involved really rich.

Madden and Dwyer also teamed up with former fashion designer Sherman Billingsley at the very fashionable Stork Club on East 53rd Street. The two Irish gangsters spread their wings in northern Manhattan when they bought Club De Luxe from former heavyweight champion Jack Johnson. They introduced Big Frenchy De Mange as operating partner and changed the name to Cotton Club. At the Cotton Club, De Mange instituted an "Only White" admission policy, despite the fact that waiters, dancers and entertainers such as Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Nicholas Brothers, they were black.

However, the Cotton Club was wildly successful with the big spenders downtown, putting tons of money into Dwyer and Madden's pockets.

In 1925, Dwyer was arrested for trying to bribe Coast Guard members during a sting operation conducted by the Prohibition Bureau. Dwyer was sentenced to two years in prison, but was released after 13 months for good behavior. With Dwyer in the can, Frank Costello took over Dwyer's boot business.

While in prison, a hopeless Dwyer told one of his cellmates. "I wish I had never seen a case of whiskey. I spent years in the daily fear of my life, always waiting to be arrested, always dealing with crooks and double-crosses and now looking at me. My wife. mine is scary and I am worse than it was broken ”.

As we shall see, this was not the truth.

When Dwyer hit the streets again, he pulled away from the boot business, leaving running operations to Costello and Madden. In order to pass the time, Dwyer started investing in legitimate business, especially in sports teams.

In 1926, boxing promoter Tex Rickard connected Dwyer to the acquisition of the Hamilton Tigers of the National Hockey League. Dwyer did this and moved his team to Madison Square Garden in New York and renamed the Americans in New York. As smart as Dwyer is to run the bootlegging business, he was just as dumb as running a hockey team. His pockets bursting with money to load, Dwyer's strategy to win was to practically pay everyone on his team. With the regular hockey player making between $ 1500 and $ 2000 a year, Dwyer awarded Billy Burch a 3-year $ 25,000 contract. Shorty Green also got a huge raise when Dwyer awarded him a $ 5,000 contract a year.

An old scammer, Dwyer took an active part in leading his team, even going as far as trying to play games. Dwyer paid the judges to rule their team if they scored a goal if the puck only reached the goal line, instead of completely crossing the goal line, which was the rule.

At a 1927 game in Madison Square Garden, Dwyer's goalkeeping judge, for some unknown reason, began attacking Ottawa goalkeeper Alex Connell. Connell responded by closing his hockey stick in the nose of the gate judge. Dwyer was upset about the actions of the Ottawa goalkeeper (You don't handle one of Dwyer's employees), and Connell was told to leave town quickly after the game. A police detail took Connell to the train station and protected him until the train left the city safely. After the train left the station, a man asked Connell if it was Ottawa goalkeeper Alex Connell. Connell is afraid of his life, he told the stranger no. And as a result, he lived to lead other hockey games.

Dutch with a league rule that one person cannot own two hockey teams, in 1929, Dwyer, using former boxing champion Benny Leonard as his man, acquired the NHL Pirates from Pittsburgh. In 1930, Dwyer inserted his sunken fingers into the new formation of the National Football League, buying the Dayton Triangles for $ 2,500. Dwyer moved the team to Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and renamed it the Brooklyn Dodgers.

In three years, Dwyer, who has paid off all his players again, began to lose so much money, sold the Brooklyn Dodgers two former New York Giant Football players: Chris Cagle and John Simms, for $ 25,000. Even though he sold the team 10 times more than he paid, Dwyer estimated he lost another $ 30,000 in the three years he owned the team.

In 1934, with sports teams from America (still owned by Americans in New York, but bleeding money), Dwyer bought the famous tropical horse racing track in Miami, Florida.

However, the roof fell on Dwyer, when in 1935, he was indicted on gambling charges. Dwyer beat that case, but then the government did what they did to Al Capone: they hit him with charges of tax evasion. The charges were blocked, and Dwyer was removed from all his property, except the Americans in New York, and a home in Belle Harbor, Queens. Almost without money, Dwyer no longer had the money to keep New York Americans on the line.

In 1937, the National Hockey League temporarily took control of the Americans in New York. To show the NHL he was a financial solvent, Dwyer borrowed $ 20,000 from Red Dutton. However, instead of paying his team's wages, Dwyer decided to try to multiply his money in a craps game. That didn't go well, when Dwyer got out of his chest and lost all twenty of his ancestors. Unable to pay his team, and failed to raise more capital, the NHL permanently knocked out Dwyer and took final control of the Americans in New York. Froggy and hopeless, Dwyer retreated to his home in Belle Harbor.

On December 10, 1943, Big Bill Dwyer, the "King of Romanian Runners" died at the age of 63. Dwyer was unpleasant at the time of his death, his only asset being the roof above his head.

5 tips for reducing flying obstacles

95% of Baby Boomers book their trip online and head to the nearest airport for a wonderful adventure. Here are some recommendations that might be useful to remember. Although you cannot anticipate any possibility, using these ideas should help you make your trip more enjoyable and help you arrive as planned.

1. Let the weather guide you, both at home and on your travel route. Listen to weather reports online and on TV. Call your airline before heading to the airport to see if the flight has been canceled or will be delayed due to weather considerations. Find out how much is recommended for arrival before your flight. Try not to make connecting flights in winter or in bad weather. A non-stop flight offers the best insurance of arrival at the destination, even if bad weather occurs. As we all know, the lack of a connecting flight can drastically change our travel itinerary!

2. Each month, the US Department of Transportation will issue a report on travel consumers. Please think about luggage. Do you want to carry your luggage with you during the trip? You can choose to pack a suitcase the right size to be taken as a carrier and make the second carrier a bag large enough to hold multiple items for easy accessibility. For information on flight delays, lost luggage, overcharges and consumer complaints, see this website http://www.dot.gov.

3. To track a particular flight, you may want to log on to http://www.trip.com or http://www.flightview.com to check the status of your flight. You will need your flight number , by the airline's name and airport call letters, such as DIA for Denver International Airport or MCI for Kansas City International Airport.

4. Are you interested in viewing the status of the operations of the largest airports in America? Log on to http://www.fly.faa.gov and you can find out what's happening at any airport in the country. You can also send real-time reports to your cellphone, email or other communication device.

5. Never book the last flight of the day, unless you don't mind spending the night in a hotel if your flight is canceled due to poor weather conditions on the travel route. Find out on which days the airlines have designated less travel days and try to choose those days when you make your travel plans.

Spending time planning and researching how to maximize your air travel options can be time well spent! Learning to book travel online is convenient, saves you time and money and expands your internet browsing knowledge to explore online travel options.

Royal Gorge Railroad War

In the 1870s, a small section of railway line with narrow gauge crept across the cavernous walls of Arkansas Canyon in the heart of Colorado. The control of this railway line will be played as a significant melodrama in the state's mining history and will be later called the "Royal Cheile War". The incident took place in Arkansas Canyon in the years 1878-1880.

Bat Masterson and Ben Thompson, two notable gunmen of the day, faced one of the railroad companies in the war – Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe (AT&SF). The railway company was trying to support the toll roads that their rival, Denver and Rio Grande (D&RG) built in 1872 as a profitable link between Denver and Pueblo.

The stage was set in 1872, when the Denver and Rio Grande (D&RG) railroad companies built a narrow gauge railroad from Denver to Pueblo, Colorado. They then opened a line from Pueblo to Canon Coal Mines, which is 37 miles west of Pueblo. Then, building south of Pueblo, they crossed a line through the mountains of southern Colorado and into the San Luis Valley until they reached El Moro in 1876. They extended the railway to Fort Garland in 1877 and finally to Alamosa, in June 1878.

About the same time the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe (AT&SF) Railroad Company was building west of Kansas City. AT&SF reached the Colorado line by 1872, but due to delays it did not reach Pueblo until 1876. In the same year, Leadville grew as a center for silver mines and made great money for freight in and outside. of the city.

Realizing this potential, AT&SF decided to run a rail line from Pueblo to Leadville. This required the line to pass through the Royal Keys of the Arkansas River, fifty miles west of Pueblo. The narrow step would allow the construction of a single railway line. This was the most important point of the conflict; D&RG wanted the same thing.

By 1878, both railway companies were shipping men and equipment to the area in the hope of securing their right of way through the gorge, while the company's lawyers were fighting for court decisions in their favor. In April of that year, AT&SF posted over 300 men in the canyon to secure their yards. D&RG matched this number, but had trouble keeping men engaged because their rival paid higher wages.

AT&SF lawyers obtained a local court to issue a temporary court decision against D&RG, stopping any other work in the canyon. But before AT&SF could take advantage of this opportunity, D&RG received their court order, which blocks the Kansas company from doing any other work on their line. With both companies shut down, the men were placed in critical locations in the canyon to ensure they had control of the line and equipment.

D&RG built several stone forts under the guidance of their chief engineer, a man by the name of James R. DeRemer who served in the civil war and knew how to build the stone chest needed for battle. These "DeRemer Fortresses" masonry built at Texas Creek and Spikebuck had gun ports and panoramic views of the runway below.

Fortunately, for both sides, the rock forts were never used to ambush each other. Until November 1878, D&RG remained without money and was forced to make a pact with their arch rival. On December 1 of that year, they issued a 30-year lease to AT&SF, which gave them the use of all railways and all equipment – including rolling stock.

Once AT&SF was in control of all lines and trains, they quickly began to squeeze in more business for Kansas City and less for Denver. Realizing their mistake, D&RG initiated legal action to break the lease. Finally, in the first part of 1879, the case was brought before the Washington Supreme Court. Anticipating a purple response, regardless of the court decision, each company sent armed men to defend their rights and property. AT&SF hired Bat Masterson and a 33-man employee he recruited in Dodge City to set up a camp in the canyon to defend his construction and property. They arrived on a special train and after setting up the camp, nicknamed "Dodge City", Bat returned to Kansas.

On April 21, the Supreme Court ruled that D&RG had a prior right to Canyon, but did not have exclusive rights. The decision, diluted as it was, did not please either party. In the latter part of May, the Attorney General of Colorado entered a lawsuit in state court to stop AT&SF from operating state railways. Then, on June 10, state judge Thomas M. Bowen issued an act stopping AT&SF from using or operating any of D&RG's buildings, equipment or rolling stock – essentially canceling their lease. With Judge Bowen's written hand, the D&RG officers went to the sheriffs of each county to cross the railroads to take possession of all their properties.

Before the writings could be delivered to county sheriffs, AT&SF recommended Bat Masterson return to Colorado and concentrate his forces in Pueblo. He quickly recruited 50 armed men and brought them on a special train. Ben Thompson and a dozen Texas colleagues were included in this group.

Initially, when approached with the offer, Ben was reluctant to sign, fearing that, if the violence broke out, he would be charged with murder. Eventually, he agreed to own the round stone house in Pueblo until law enforcement officers presented him with legal documents to take possession. According to Walton's book (The life and adventures of Ben Thompson) Thompson agreed to work for $ 5,000 and was approached by D&RG to hand over the $ 25,000 roundhouse. Ben refused the offer, saying, "I will die here, if the law does not exempt me."

On June 11, the Denver Sheriff and his D&RG men took over the AT&SF office and the Denver roundhouse. Then a train of D&RG agents headed south to take possession of the property along the way. At the same time, the former governor of Colorado, A.C. Hunt, raised a position of 200 men, captured a train and headed north, taking all the small stations and taking the agents as prisoners. In Cucharas, Hunt's forces shot him with twelve AT&SF men – killing a Mexican and injuring an Irishman named Dan Sullivan.

In Pueblo, Sheriff Henley R. Price backed two D&RG officers, J.A. McMurtie and R.F. Weitbrec, served copies of Judge Bowen's letter to all AT&SF workers at dawn. After serving the writings, Sheriff Price and his position left for the train dispatcher's office at 8:30. The dispatcher refused to let him take control of the building, and the sheriff told him he had thirty minutes to think about it.

At 9:00, Price returned and found the office full of dozens of armed AT&SF men, who refused to get rich. Disappointed, the sheriff started back to the Grand Central Hotel and recruited another 100 deputies – all armed and mixed with plenty of free liquor.

Returning to the depot at noon, Sheriff Price and his army of deputies requested that the deputies surrender. They refused and the pictures moved to the roundabout, where Ben Thompson and Texans were waiting. Ben confronted by the sheriff, Ben said that he was put in charge of the company's property and that he cannot give it up without being authorized to do so. The sheriff then stated that he had come to disperse an armed mob.

Ben replied that there is no armed mob in the roundhouse, only men in the construction crew who were sent to guard the property of the company. Saying that some of the men had arms, Ben invited the sheriff to walk inside the round house and look over the men to see if any of them were guilty of the law. Price was allowed to enter the roundhouse alone and after a brief search remained without arrest.

In front of a standoff powder hub, Sheriff Price withdrew his people and sought advice from local lawyers. After examining the judge's letter, he was informed that he was not authorized to use force to take over the AT&SF property. He chewed this up around 3:00 and then decided it was time to take action, regardless of the legalities in place. He and fifty of his liquor-laced deputies met in front of the Victoria Hotel, where they were provided with bayonets and a heavy ammunition ration, courtesy of D&RG. Going to the warehouse, they formed a skid line in front of the building.

About that time, a cattleman by the name of W.F. Chumside stopped by the ticket office. He said he was "slightly under the influence of liquor" and wanted to argue the case of those inside the warehouse. He was quickly shot down by one of the deputies and kicked in the head.

Then he went to the telegraph office and started firing as they knocked on the door. Most of the men in the office quickly escaped through the back doors and arrived safely. Unfortunately, Harry Jenkings fell as he ran and was shot in the chest, with the bullet lodged in his spine. The owner threw the injured man into an express wagon and sent him for medical care. He died a short time later.

After storming the telegraph office, the position turned to the round house, the last fortress of the AT&SF defenders. Thompson met them outside the roundhouse shouting, "Come on, you sons of a whore; if you want a fight, you can have one. " Before he could support his challenge, he was overwhelmed by a dozen deputies and thrown into prison. Without their leader, those inside wanted to park. Shortly after, they surrendered the building without a shot. They were all disarmed and turned on the street to join Thompson in the small crowded prison on West Fifth Street.

That evening, former Governor Hunt and his party arrived by train from the south and then continued on the Arkansas River to Canon City. By midnight, the entire railroad had been captured. Earlier that night, Bat Masterson, Ben Thompson and the other AT&SF employees were released from prison and put on a special train bound for Dodge City. The next morning, Ben collected his money from AT&SF and headed to Texas, through Kansas City and St. Louis.

The Royal Gorge adventure did not end on June 11, but continued in court for several months. Finally, "baron of the robber" Jay Gould bought fifty percent of the stock in D&RG and settled the dispute outside the court. On March 27, 1880, both railways agreed to sign the "Boston Treaty" which returned the railroad and ownership back to the D&RG. AT&SF was paid $ 1.8 million for the railway line it built through the crossing and the Royal Gorge War was finally completed.

Mobster in America – Jack "Legs" Diamond – The gangster who couldn't be killed

Jack "Legs" Diamond was shot and badly wounded countless times, he was called the "Gangster who couldn't be killed."

Diamond, born July 10, 1897, from his parents in Kilrush, County Clare, Ireland, spent his first years in Philadelphia. After his mother died of a viral infection when Diamond was thirteen, he and his younger brother, Eddie, fell with a group of troops called "The Boiler Gang." Diamond was arrested dozens of times for assorted robberies and ashes, and after spending a few months in a youth reformer, Diamond was drafted into the army. The life of the army did not fit Diamond very well. He served less than a year, then decided to go on AWOL. He was soon arrested and sentenced to three to five years at the Federal Penitentiary in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Diamond was released from prison in 1921, and he decided that New York was the place where he could make his fortune. Diamond and his brother, Eddie, moved to the lower east of Manhattan, where they fell with a gangster named Lucky Luciano. Diamond has done some weird work for Luciano, including a little startup, along with young Brooklyn Vannie Higgins. Diamond's marriage to Florance Williams lasted only a few months (he was never home). But his luck changed, when Luciano introduced Diamond to Arnold "The Brain" Rothstein, a notorious gambler and financial wizard. This was the break Diamond was waiting for and he made the most of it.

After starting out as a bodyguard for Rothstein, Rothstein brought in Diamond as a partner in his heroin work. When his pockets became quite full of money and his need for Rothstein diminished, Diamond, in concert with his brother Eddie, decided to break away from himself. They realized they could make a hijacking package for the startup trucks of other mobsters, including those of Owney Madden and Big Bill Dwyer. This was not a very good idea, as Madden and Dwyer were part of a larger syndicate of criminals, including Luciano, the Dutchman Schultz, and Meyer Lansky. In short, Diamond was the persona non grata in the gangster world and free choice for anyone who wanted to get rid of him.

In October 1924, Diamond was driving a Dodge sedan on Fifth Avenue when, on 110th Street, a black limousine pulled up beside him. A rifle fired at Diamond from the rear window of the limo, but Diamond was too quick to be killed. He got down and hit the accelerator, without looking where he was going. Fortunately, he managed to escape from his gunmen and to the nearby hospital in Mount Sinai. Doctors pulled pills at his head, face and feet, and when police officers came to interrogate him, Diamond was ripped off.

"I don't know anything about it," Diamond said for the fuzz. "Why would anyone want to shoot me? They must have the wrong guy."

Soon, Diamond befriended a gangster who did not seek to kill him. His name was "Little Augie" Orgen. Orgen installed Diamond as a bodyguard. Instead, Orgen gave Diamond a good deal of his narcotics and narcotics business. This friendship went well until October 15, 1927, when Louis Lepke and Gurrah Shapiro drove down Orgen on the corner of Norfolk and Delancey Street, Diamond assuming he was safe on Orgen's safety. The diamond was shot in the arms and legs (probably by accident), requiring another trip to the hospital. Upon his release, he handled Lepke and Shapiro nicely, and as a result, the two killers offered Diamond Orgen's booty and narcotics business, as a reward for being foolish enough to get in the way of Orgen's bullets.

Now Diamond was at the top of the world. He had plenty of money to throw around and became a top chef in all the top nightclubs in New York City, usually with showgirl Kiki Roberts on his arm, despite the fact that he was still married to his second. wife, Alice Kenny. Diamond was regularly seen at the Cotton Club, El Fay and Stork Club, and his image was frequently seen in newspapers, which depicted Diamond not as a gangster but as a handsome man about the city. Soon Diamond was the owner of Hotsy Totsy Club on Broadway, between 54th and 55th Street, with Hymie Cohen as the front-runner. The Hotsy Totsy Club had a back room where Diamond often settled business disputes, usually shooting his opponents to death, then taking them as if they were drunk.

Diamond's fall began when, on July 13, 1929, three unreliable dock operators loaded up and started a ruckus at the Hotsy Totsy club bar. Diamond jumped, along with his bandmate Charles Entratta, to stop his manager from being agitated. "I'm Jack Diamond and I'm running this place," Diamond told the dock workers. "If you don't calm down, I throw your head (explosively)."

The speech did not work and soon began filming. When the smoke cleared, two dock operators were dead and one injured. As a result, Diamond and Entratta took the blade. While hiding, Diamond decided that before he could return to do what he was doing, the bartender and three witnesses had to be killed. And soon they were. Cohen also died, and the little girl checking the hat, the cashier and a waiter disappeared from the face of the earth. Diamond and Entratta, with everyone outside anyone who could hurt him, calmly turned to the police and said, "I heard we were being searched." No charges were ever filed against them, but Diamond realized that New York City was no longer safe for him, so he closed the Hotsy Totsy Club and moved to Greene County, New York.

From New York State, Diamond performed a small startup operation. But after a few months of impatience, he sent word back to the New York gangsters, namely Dutchman Schultz and Owney Madden, who threw Diamond's rockets in his absence, returning to take what was his own. This set a target right behind Diamond and became known as the "clay pigeon of the interlaced world."

Diamond was sitting at the Aratoga Inn bar near Arca, New York, when three men dressed as duck hunters dressed in the bar and filled Diamond with bullets. Doctors offered her little chance of survival, but four weeks later, Diamond left the hospital and told the press, "Well, I did it again. Nobody can kill Jack Legs Diamond. ”

Several months later, while Diamond was leaving an inn on the side of the road, he was shot four times; in the back, foot, lungs and liver, but again, he beat the chances that the doctors gave him and he survived. He was not so lucky in December 1931, when after a night of heavy drinking at the Kenmore Hotel in Albany, he headed back, drunk, to the nearby boarding house and fell asleep. The owner later said he heard Diamond praying for his life, before hearing three blows. It appears that two gunmen burst into Diamond's room, and while one of them held his two ears, the other put three beats in his brain.

The killers escaped in a red Packard, ending the myth that Jack "Legs" Diamond was the gangster who couldn't be killed.